Black Death

plagueBlack PlagueGreat Plaguethe plagueThe Black Deathbubonic plagueThe Black Plagueplague-related deathsGreat Mortalitypestilence
The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence (Pest for short), the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.wikipedia
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Host (biology)

hostintermediate hosthosts
The bubonic plague mechanism was also dependent on two populations of rodents: one resistant to the disease, which act as hosts, keeping the disease endemic, and a second that lack resistance.

Endemic (epidemiology)

endemicendemic diseasecommon
The bubonic plague mechanism was also dependent on two populations of rodents: one resistant to the disease, which act as hosts, keeping the disease endemic, and a second that lack resistance.

Epidemic typhus

typhusepidemicputrid fever
When the second population dies, the fleas move on to other hosts, including people, thus creating a human epidemic.

Francis Aidan Gasquet

F. A. GasquetCardinal GasquetAidan Francis Neil Gasquet
The historian Francis Aidan Gasquet wrote about the Great Pestilence in 1893 and suggested that "it would appear to be some form of the ordinary Eastern or bubonic plague".

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
He was able to adopt the epidemiology of the bubonic plague for the Black Death for the second edition in 1908, implicating rats and fleas in the process, and his interpretation was widely accepted for other ancient and medieval epidemics, such as the Plague of Justinian that was prevalent in the Eastern Roman Empire from 541 to 700 CE.

Mortality rate

mortalitymortality ratesdeath rates
An estimate of the mortality rate for the modern bubonic plague, following the introduction of antibiotics, is 11%, although it may be higher in underdeveloped regions.

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialtopical antibiotic
An estimate of the mortality rate for the modern bubonic plague, following the introduction of antibiotics, is 11%, although it may be higher in underdeveloped regions.

Arthralgia

joint painjoint painsarthralgias
Symptoms of the disease include fever of 38 –, headaches, painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of malaise.

Nausea

nauseousnauseatedvomiting
Symptoms of the disease include fever of 38 –, headaches, painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of malaise.

Malaise

a general sense of feeling unwellgeneral discomfortfeeling generally unwell
Symptoms of the disease include fever of 38 –, headaches, painful aching joints, nausea and vomiting, and a general feeling of malaise.

Hemoptysis

coughing up bloodhaemoptysishæmoptysis
Symptoms include fever, cough, and blood-tinged sputum.

Purpura

purpuricFood-induced purpuraPurpura secondary to clotting disorders
Symptoms are high fevers and purple skin patches (purpura due to disseminated intravascular coagulation).

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

DICdefibrination syndromedisseminated intravascular coagulopathy
Symptoms are high fevers and purple skin patches (purpura due to disseminated intravascular coagulation).

PLOS Pathogens

Public Library of Science Pathogens
In October 2010, the open-access scientific journal PLOS Pathogens published a paper by a multinational team who undertook a new investigation into the role of Yersinia pestis in the Black Death following the disputed identification by Drancourt and Raoult in 1998.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
They assessed the presence of DNA/RNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for ''Y.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
They assessed the presence of DNA/RNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for ''Y.

Dental alveolus

alveolialveolustooth socket
pestis'' from the tooth sockets in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences.

Disease causative agent

causative agent
The authors concluded that this new research, together with prior analyses from the south of France and Germany, "ends the debate about the cause of the Black Death, and unambiguously demonstrates that Y. pestis was the causative agent of the epidemic plague that devastated Europe during the Middle Ages".

Clade

cladesgroupcladistic
The study also found that there were two previously unknown but related clades (genetic branches) of the ''Y.

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
pestis'' genome associated with medieval mass graves.

Genotype

genotypesgenotypicgenotypically
pestis'' genotype responsible for the pandemic that spread through the Low Countries from 1350 differed from that found in Britain and France, implying Bergen op Zoom (and possibly other parts of the southern Netherlands) was not directly infected from England or France in 1349 and suggesting a second wave of plague, different from those in Britain and France, may have been carried to the Low Countries from Norway, the Hanseatic cities or another site.

Low Countries

The Low CountriesLow CountryNetherlands
pestis'' genotype responsible for the pandemic that spread through the Low Countries from 1350 differed from that found in Britain and France, implying Bergen op Zoom (and possibly other parts of the southern Netherlands) was not directly infected from England or France in 1349 and suggesting a second wave of plague, different from those in Britain and France, may have been carried to the Low Countries from Norway, the Hanseatic cities or another site.

Hanseatic League

HanseaticHanseHansa
pestis'' genotype responsible for the pandemic that spread through the Low Countries from 1350 differed from that found in Britain and France, implying Bergen op Zoom (and possibly other parts of the southern Netherlands) was not directly infected from England or France in 1349 and suggesting a second wave of plague, different from those in Britain and France, may have been carried to the Low Countries from Norway, the Hanseatic cities or another site.

Nature (journal)

NatureNature MagazineNature News
A study published in Nature in October 2011 sequenced the genome of ''Y.

David Herlihy

Herlihy, David
In 1984, zoologist Graham Twigg produced the first major work to challenge the bubonic plague theory directly, and his doubts about the identity of the Black Death have been taken up by a number of authors, including Samuel K. Cohn, Jr. (2002 and 2013), David Herlihy (1997), and Susan Scott and Christopher Duncan (2001).