Blackfoot Confederacy

BlackfootBlackfeetBlackfoot IndiansNiitsitapiBlackfoot peopleBlackfoot tribeBlackfeet IndiansBlackfoot IndianBlackfeet NationBlackfoot First Nations
The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or "Blackfoot-speaking real people" ) is a historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: The Siksika ("Blackfoot"), the Kainai or Kainah ("Blood"), and two sections of the Piikani (Piegan Blackfeet), the Northern Piikani (Aapátohsipikáni) and the Southern Piikani (Amskapi Piikani or Pikuni).wikipedia
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First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
Today, three First Nation band governments (the Siksika Nation, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation) reside in Canada in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan.

Blackfoot language

BlackfootblaBlackfeet
The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or "Blackfoot-speaking real people" ) is a historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: The Siksika ("Blackfoot"), the Kainai or Kainah ("Blood"), and two sections of the Piikani (Piegan Blackfeet), the Northern Piikani (Aapátohsipikáni) and the Southern Piikani (Amskapi Piikani or Pikuni).
The Blackfoot language, also called Siksiká (ᓱᖽᐧᖿ, its denomination in ISO 639-3), (Siksiká [siksiká], syllabics ᓱᖽᐧᖿ), often anglicised as Siksika, is an Algonquian language spoken by the Blackfoot or Niitsitapi people, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America.

Piegan Blackfeet

BlackfeetPieganBlackfoot
The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi (ᖹᐟᒧᐧᒣᑯ, meaning "the people" or "Blackfoot-speaking real people" ) is a historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: The Siksika ("Blackfoot"), the Kainai or Kainah ("Blood"), and two sections of the Piikani (Piegan Blackfeet), the Northern Piikani (Aapátohsipikáni) and the Southern Piikani (Amskapi Piikani or Pikuni).
They were the largest of three Blackfoot-speaking groups that made up the Blackfoot Confederacy; the Siksika and Kainai were the others.

Saskatchewan

SKSaskatchewan, CanadaProvince of Saskatchewan
Today, three First Nation band governments (the Siksika Nation, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation) reside in Canada in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
Saskatchewan has been populated by various indigenous peoples of North America, including members of the Sarcee, Niitsitapi, Atsina, Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine (Nakoda), Lakota and Sioux.

Bow River

BowBow River valleyBow River Irrigation District
They followed the bison herds as they migrated between what are now the United States and Canada, as far north as the Bow River.
Among them were the Nakoda, Tsuu T'ina, and the Blackfoot Confederacy, consisting of the Kainai, Piikanai, and Siksika peoples.

Fort Belknap Indian Reservation

Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of MontanaFort Belknap ReservationFort Belknap Indian Community
members of the federally recognized Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana in the United States and the Tsuutʼina Nation is a First Nation band government in Alberta, Canada.
It comprises a small portion of the vast ancestral territory of the Blackfoot Confederacy, which consisted of the Northern and Southern Piegan ("Poor Robes"), Kainah ("Blood") and Siksika ("Black Feet") tribes and their historical allies, the Atsina or Aaniiih Nation ("Gros Ventre").

Kainai Nation

KainaiBloodBlood Tribe
Today, three First Nation band governments (the Siksika Nation, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation) reside in Canada in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
They are one of three nations comprising the Blackfoot Confederacy.

Cypress Hills (Canada)

Cypress HillsCypress Hills, Saskatchewan
The Confederacy had a territory that stretched from the North Saskatchewan River (called Ponoká'sisaahta) along what is now Edmonton, Alberta, in Canada, to the Yellowstone River (called Otahkoiitahtayi) of Montana in the United States, and from the Rocky Mountains (called Miistakistsi) and along the South Saskatchewan River to the present Alberta-Saskatchewan border (called Kaayihkimikoyi), east past the Cypress Hills.
An 1882 Blackfoot–English dictionary written by C. M. Lanning provided the Blackfoot name I-kim-e-kooy, which translates as "striped earth" or "earth over earth".

Alberta

Alberta, CanadaABAlberta Transportation
Today, three First Nation band governments (the Siksika Nation, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation) reside in Canada in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
Over time they differentiated into various First Nations peoples, including the Plains Indian tribes of southern Alberta such as those of the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Plains Cree, who generally lived by hunting buffalo, and the more northerly tribes such as the Woodland Cree and Chipewyan who hunted, trapped, and fished for a living.

Siksika Nation

SiksikaSiksika First NationBlackfoot
Today, three First Nation band governments (the Siksika Nation, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation) reside in Canada in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
When European explorers travelled west, they most likely met the Siksiká first and assumed all Niitsítapi of the Blackfoot Confederacy were Blackfoot, which is incorrect.

Montana

MTState of MontanaMontana, USA
Today, three First Nation band governments (the Siksika Nation, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation) reside in Canada in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
Historic tribes encountered by Europeans and settlers from the United States included the Crow in the south-central area, the Cheyenne in the very southeast, the Blackfeet, Assiniboine, and Gros Ventres in the central and north-central area, and the Kootenai and Salish in the west.

Piikani Nation

PeiganNorthern PeiganPiikani
Today, three First Nation band governments (the Siksika Nation, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation) reside in Canada in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.
Historically speaking the Blackfoot language and having membership of the Blackfoot Confederacy (Niitsítapi), the Peigan people occupied territory before the 1870s on both sides of what is now the Canada–United States border.

Iron Confederacy

Plains CreeCree and AssiniboineCree and Assiniboine go-betweens
In the first half of the 18th century, they acquired horses and firearms from white traders and their Cree and Assiniboine go-betweens.
In 1754 Anthony Henday reports that he was able to buy a horse from the Assiniboine camped near present-day Battleford, Saskatchewan and was the first European witness to Cree-Assiniboine trade with the "Archithinue" (Blackfoot Confederacy).

Treaty 7

7Treaty Number 7Treaty Seven
In 1877, the Canadian Niitsitapi signed Treaty 7 and settled on reserves in southern Alberta.
Treaty 7 is an agreement between Canadian Crown and several, mainly Blackfoot, First Nation band governments in what is today the southern portion of Alberta.

Buffalo jump

bison jumpbison jumpsbuffalo jumps
The buffalo jump was one of the most common ways.
The Blackfoot Indians called the buffalo jumps "pishkun", which loosely translates as "deep blood kettle".

North Saskatchewan River

North SaskatchewanNorthNorth Saskatchewan River valley
The Confederacy had a territory that stretched from the North Saskatchewan River (called Ponoká'sisaahta) along what is now Edmonton, Alberta, in Canada, to the Yellowstone River (called Otahkoiitahtayi) of Montana in the United States, and from the Rocky Mountains (called Miistakistsi) and along the South Saskatchewan River to the present Alberta-Saskatchewan border (called Kaayihkimikoyi), east past the Cypress Hills.
The river demarcates the prairie–parkland divide for much of its course and acted as a natural boundary between plains Blackfoot and woodland Cree First Nations people for thousands of years.

Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump

buffalo jumpHead Smashed In Buffalo JumpHead-Smashed-In
Several groups of people might join together at particularly good sites, such as Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump.
It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and home of the museum of Blackfoot culture.

Tsuutʼina Nation

Tsuu T'inaTsuu T'ina NationSarcee
members of the federally recognized Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana in the United States and the Tsuutʼina Nation is a First Nation band government in Alberta, Canada.
The Tsuutʼina people were formerly called the Sarsi or Sarcee, words which are believed to have been derived from a Blackfoot word meaning stubborn ones.

Shoshone

ShoshoniShoshone peopleShoshone Indians
They had not seen horses in their previous lands, but were introduced to them on the Plains, as other tribes, such as the Shoshone, had already adopted their use. The Niitsitapi were enemies of the Crow, Cheyenne (kiihtsipimiitapi – ″Pinto People″), and Sioux (Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota) (called pinaapisinaa – "East Cree") on the Great Plains; and the Shoshone, Flathead, Kalispel, Kootenai (called kotonáá'wa) and Nez Perce (called komonóítapiikoan) in the mountain country to their west and southwest.
After 1750, warfare and pressure from the Blackfoot, Crow, Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho pushed Eastern Shoshone south and westward.

Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

FlatheadConfederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead NationSalish
The Niitsitapi were enemies of the Crow, Cheyenne (kiihtsipimiitapi – ″Pinto People″), and Sioux (Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota) (called pinaapisinaa – "East Cree") on the Great Plains; and the Shoshone, Flathead, Kalispel, Kootenai (called kotonáá'wa) and Nez Perce (called komonóítapiikoan) in the mountain country to their west and southwest.
Next to them lived the Salisan tribes' common enemy, the Blackfoot.

Crow people

CrowCrow NationCrow tribe
The Niitsitapi were enemies of the Crow, Cheyenne (kiihtsipimiitapi – ″Pinto People″), and Sioux (Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota) (called pinaapisinaa – "East Cree") on the Great Plains; and the Shoshone, Flathead, Kalispel, Kootenai (called kotonáá'wa) and Nez Perce (called komonóítapiikoan) in the mountain country to their west and southwest.
The Crow were subject to raids and horse thefts by horse-poor tribes, including the powerful Blackfoot Confederacy, Gros Ventre, Assiniboine, Pawnee, and Ute.

Gros Ventre

Gros VentresAtsinaA'aninin
Broader definitions include groups, like the Tsúùtínà (Sarcee) and A'aninin (Gros Ventre), spoke quite different languages but allied or joined with the Blackfoot Confederacy as well.
The Gros Ventres joined the Blackfoot Confederacy.

Rocky Mountains

RockiesRocky MountainRocky Mountain Region
The Confederacy had a territory that stretched from the North Saskatchewan River (called Ponoká'sisaahta) along what is now Edmonton, Alberta, in Canada, to the Yellowstone River (called Otahkoiitahtayi) of Montana in the United States, and from the Rocky Mountains (called Miistakistsi) and along the South Saskatchewan River to the present Alberta-Saskatchewan border (called Kaayihkimikoyi), east past the Cypress Hills.
Since the last great ice age, the Rocky Mountains were home first to indigenous peoples including the Apache, Arapaho, Bannock, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Coeur d'Alene, Kalispel, Crow Nation, Flathead, Shoshone, Sioux, Ute, Kutenai (Ktunaxa in Canada), Sekani, Dunne-za, and others.

Battle River

Battle
The area between the North Saskatchewan River and Battle River (the name derives from the war fought between these two tribal groups) was the limit of the now warring tribal alliances.
But by 1793 Peter Fidler mentions arriving at the "Battle or Fighting River", likely so named because of the beginning of a period of rivalry between the Iron Confederacy (Cree and Assiniboine) and the Blackfoot Confederacy.

Arapaho

ArapahoeNorthern ArapahoArapahos
Early scholars thought the A'aninin were related to the Arapaho Nation, who inhabited the Missouri Plains and moved west to Colorado and Wyoming.
North of Arapaho territory they fought with the Crow (Houunenno), Blackfoot Confederacy (Woo'teenixteet or Woo'teenixtee3i' – ″people wearing black-feet″), Gros Ventre (Hitouunenno, Gros Ventre tribe: Hitouuteen), Flathead (Kookee'ei3i), Arikara (Koonoonii3i – ″people whose jaws break in pieces″), Iron Confederacy (Nehiyaw-Pwat) (Assiniboine (Nihooneihteenootineihino - "yellow-footed Sioux"), Plains/Woods Cree (Nooku(h)nenno; Plains Cree tribe: Nookuho - "rabbit people"), Saulteaux (Plains Ojibwa) and Nakoda (Stoney)).