Blaine Amendment

Blaine Amendmentsstrong opposition to any public fundingreligious schools.state aid to Catholic schoolsusing public funds or public property for the benefit of sectarian religious purposes
The Blaine Amendment was first a failed amendment to the U.S.wikipedia
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James G. Blaine

James BlaineBlaineJames Gillespie Blaine
After Grant's speech Republican Congressman James G. Blaine (1830–1893) proposed the amendment to the federal Constitution.
In December 1875, he proposed a joint resolution that became known as the Blaine Amendment.

Trinity Lutheran Church of Columbia, Inc. v. Comer

Trinity Lutheran v. Comer
In 1876, the Blaine Amendment to the United States Constitution, which sought to combat the perceived threat Catholics posed to the nation’s Protestant character by prohibiting public funding of parochial schools, failed.

Anti-Catholicism in the United States

anti-Catholicanti-Catholicismanti-Catholic bias
The amendment was defeated in 1875 but would be used as a model for so-called "Blaine Amendments" incorporated into 34 state constitutions over the next three decades.

Becket Fund for Religious Liberty

The Becket Fund for Religious LibertyCanterbury MedalBecket Fund
For example, it operates resource websites about the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act, the freedom to preach without fear of censorship or IRS retribution, the Blaine Amendments, and religious liberty in Sri Lanka.

Constitutional amendment

amendmentamendmentsconstitutional reform
The Blaine Amendment was first a failed amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

State constitution (United States)

state constitutionstate constitutionsconstitution
Thirty-eight of the fifty states adopted provisions of Blaine in their state constitutions.

Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
They were designed to prohibit aid to parochial schools, especially those operated by the Catholic Church in locations with large immigrant populations.

Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant

Grant administrationUlysses S. Grant's presidencypresidency
President Ulysses S. Grant (1869–77) in a speech in 1875 to a veteran's meeting, called for a Constitutional amendment that would mandate free public schools and prohibit the use of public money for sectarian schools.

United States Senate

U.S. SenatorUnited States SenatorU.S. Senate
In 1875, the proposed amendment passed by a vote of 180 to 7 in the House of Representatives, but failed by four votes to achieve the necessary two-thirds vote in the United States Senate.

Arkansas

ARState of ArkansasArkansan
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

Connecticut

CTState of ConnecticutConn.
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

Maine

MEState of MaineMaine, United States
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

Maryland

MDState of MarylandMaryland, USA
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

New Jersey

NJState of New JerseyJersey
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

North Carolina

NCNorthState of North Carolina
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

Rhode Island

RIState of Rhode IslandR.I.
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

Tennessee

TNState of TennesseeTenn.
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

Vermont

VTState of VermontGeography of Vermont
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

West Virginia

WVwestern VirginiaState of West Virginia
Eventually, all but 10 states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, and West Virginia) passed laws that meet the general criteria for designation as "Blaine amendments," in that they ban the use of public funds to support sectarian private schools.

Separation of church and state

disestablishmentchurch and stateseparation of religion and state

United States Commission on Civil Rights

U.S. Commission on Civil RightsCivil Rights CommissionUnited States Civil Rights Commission

Education in the United States

9 to 12United Stateseducation
From about 1876, thirty-nine states passed a constitutional amendment to their state constitutions, called Blaine Amendments after James G. Blaine, one of their chief promoters, forbidding the use of public tax money to fund local parochial schools.

Alabama

ALState of AlabamaAlabamian
They wrote another constitution in 1875, and the legislature passed the Blaine Amendment, prohibiting public money from being used to finance religious-affiliated schools.

Catholic schools in the United States

Catholic schoolCatholicCatholic schools
Protestants reacted by strong opposition to any public funding of parochial schools.

John Roberts Supreme Court nomination

nominated(Nominated and Confirmed)78–22
Some consider such questioning to be a revival of anti-Catholic bigotry reminiscent of the public concern about Catholic influence that presidential candidate John F. Kennedy faced in 1960, and exemplified by the controversial Blaine Amendments.