Blanchard's transsexualism typology

autogynephiliaautogynephilicBlanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theorya taxonomy of male-to-female transsexualismautogynephilia theoryBlanchard's taxonomy of male-to-female transsexualismBlanchard's typologytaxonomythe Blanchard theorythe controversy
Blanchard's transsexualism typology is a psychological typology of gender dysphoria, transsexualism, and fetishistic transvestism, created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of prior researchers, including his colleague, Kurt Freund.wikipedia
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The Man Who Would Be Queen

The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism
In the transgender community, the typology has been the subject of controversy, which drew public attention with the publication of Bailey's The Man Who Would Be Queen in 2003.
In the third section, Bailey summarizes evidence for a psychological typology of trans women that says there are two forms of transsexualism that affect transgender women: one that he describes as an extreme type of male homosexuality and one that is a sexual interest in having a female body, called autogynephilia.

Homosexual transsexual

feminine homosexuality
Blanchard categorized trans women into two groups: "homosexual transsexuals" who are attracted exclusively to men, and who seek sex reassignment surgery because they are feminine in both behavior and appearance; and "autogynephilic transsexuals" who are sexually aroused at the idea of having a female body.
Sexologist Ray Blanchard uses the concept in relation to one type of male-to-female (MTF) transsexual in his transsexualism typology developed in the late 1980s.

Alice Dreger

Alice Domurat DregerDregerDreger, Alice Domurat
Supporters of the typology include sexologists J. Michael Bailey, Anthony Bogaert, James Cantor, Kurt Freund, Anne Lawrence, bioethicist Alice Dreger, and others who cite evidence showing significant differences between the two groups, including sexuality, age of transition, ethnicity, IQ, fetishism, and quality of adjustment.
Dreger has been criticized by transgender activist Lynn Conway for her support of psychologist Ray Blanchard's taxonomy of trans women.

Anne Lawrence

Supporters of the typology include sexologists J. Michael Bailey, Anthony Bogaert, James Cantor, Kurt Freund, Anne Lawrence, bioethicist Alice Dreger, and others who cite evidence showing significant differences between the two groups, including sexuality, age of transition, ethnicity, IQ, fetishism, and quality of adjustment.
Lawrence is a proponent of Ray Blanchard's autogynephilia theory and self-identifies as an autogynephilic transsexual.

J. Michael Bailey

Bailey StudyMichael Baileythe 'Bailey Study
Supporters of the typology include sexologists J. Michael Bailey, Anthony Bogaert, James Cantor, Kurt Freund, Anne Lawrence, bioethicist Alice Dreger, and others who cite evidence showing significant differences between the two groups, including sexuality, age of transition, ethnicity, IQ, fetishism, and quality of adjustment.
He also reviewed the theory of Ray Blanchard that there are two unrelated forms of transsexualism, one that is an extreme type of homosexuality and one that is an expression of a paraphilia known as autogynephilia.

Attraction to transgender people

GynandromorphophiliaTransvestophiliaAndromimetophilia
Gynandromorphophilia, an attraction to people with both male and female anatomy, has been cited as the inverse of autogynephilia, and has been reported as associated with it.
A substantial proportion of men attracted to transgender people report also experiencing autogynephilia, sexual arousal in response to the image of themselves as female.

Charles Allen Moser

Charles Moser
Criticism of the typology has come from sexologists John Bancroft and Charles Allen Moser, psychologist Margaret Nichols, academics Larry Nuttbrock and Jaimie Veale.

James Cantor

Supporters of the typology include sexologists J. Michael Bailey, Anthony Bogaert, James Cantor, Kurt Freund, Anne Lawrence, bioethicist Alice Dreger, and others who cite evidence showing significant differences between the two groups, including sexuality, age of transition, ethnicity, IQ, fetishism, and quality of adjustment.
Cantor has written that transsexuality is a phenomenon of the brain, stating that MRI research has verified the Blanchard theory of there being two different kinds of male-to-female transsexuals.

Ray Blanchard

Blanchard R
Blanchard's transsexualism typology is a psychological typology of gender dysphoria, transsexualism, and fetishistic transvestism, created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of prior researchers, including his colleague, Kurt Freund.

Transvestic fetishism

fetishistic transvestismTransvestic disordercrossdresser
Blanchard's transsexualism typology is a psychological typology of gender dysphoria, transsexualism, and fetishistic transvestism, created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of prior researchers, including his colleague, Kurt Freund.
"Habitual fetishistic tranvestism developing into autogynephilia" is given as a risk factor for gender dysphoria to develop.

Analloeroticism

Analloerotic
Blanchard applied a statistical technique called cluster analysis to sort cases into groups four groups—homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual, and asexual or analloerotic (not attracted to others at all)—according to their self-ratings of how attracted they were to males and to females.
In his typology of transsexual women, Ray Blanchard observed that, in spite of the fact that autogynephilia and heterosexual attraction more often than not coexisted, there were some cases in which autogynephilia was so intense that it effectively nullified any sexual attraction to women (in other words, they were analloerotic).

Julia Serano

Julia Serano criticized Blanchard's choice of wording as confusing or degrading.

Galileo's Middle Finger

Galileo’s Middle Finger: Heretics, Activists, and the Search for Justice in Science
Dreger studied the reactions of trans activists and other controversies in her 2015 book Galileo's Middle Finger.
These include the debates surrounding intersex genital surgery, autogynephilia, and anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon's work.

Androphilia and gynephilia

androphilicgynephiliaandrophilia
Blanchard studied two types of trans women: those who came out as transgender earlier in life and were mainly attracted to men (androphilic), and those who came out later in life and were mainly attracted to women (gynephilic), in order to understand what made them different from one another.
*Blanchard's transsexualism typology

Lynn Conway

Lynn A. ConwayConway, LynnConway
Trans activist Lynn Conway blogged extensively about the publication of Bailey's book by the United States National Academy of Sciences and along with other activists accused Bailey of misconduct.
Conway has been a prominent critic of the Blanchard, Bailey, and Lawrence theory of male-to-female transsexualism that all trans women are motivated either by feminine homosexuality or autogynephilia.

Cross-dressing

cross-dressercross-dresscrossdressing
Blanchard and colleagues reported in 1986 that gynephilic gender identity patients who denied experiencing arousal to cross-dressing were still measurably aroused by autogynephilic stimuli, and that autogynephilia among non-androphilic trans women was negatively associated with tendency to color their narrative to be more socially acceptable.

Classification of transsexual and transgender people

Classification of transsexual peoplea taxonomy based on transsexual sexuality
Blanchard's transsexualism typology (also Blanchard autogynephilia theory (BAT) and Blanchard's taxonomy) is a psychological typology of male-to-female transsexualism created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of his colleague, Kurt Freund.

Psychological typologies

typologypsychological typology
Blanchard's transsexualism typology is a psychological typology of gender dysphoria, transsexualism, and fetishistic transvestism, created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of prior researchers, including his colleague, Kurt Freund.

Transsexual

transsexualismtranssexualstranssexuality
Blanchard's transsexualism typology is a psychological typology of gender dysphoria, transsexualism, and fetishistic transvestism, created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of prior researchers, including his colleague, Kurt Freund.

Kurt Freund

Kurt Freund LaboratoryFreund
Supporters of the typology include sexologists J. Michael Bailey, Anthony Bogaert, James Cantor, Kurt Freund, Anne Lawrence, bioethicist Alice Dreger, and others who cite evidence showing significant differences between the two groups, including sexuality, age of transition, ethnicity, IQ, fetishism, and quality of adjustment. Blanchard's transsexualism typology is a psychological typology of gender dysphoria, transsexualism, and fetishistic transvestism, created by Ray Blanchard through the 1980s and 1990s, building on the work of prior researchers, including his colleague, Kurt Freund.

Sex reassignment surgery

gender reassignment surgerygender reassignmentsex change operation
Blanchard categorized trans women into two groups: "homosexual transsexuals" who are attracted exclusively to men, and who seek sex reassignment surgery because they are feminine in both behavior and appearance; and "autogynephilic transsexuals" who are sexually aroused at the idea of having a female body.

Anthony Bogaert

Anthony F. Bogaert
Supporters of the typology include sexologists J. Michael Bailey, Anthony Bogaert, James Cantor, Kurt Freund, Anne Lawrence, bioethicist Alice Dreger, and others who cite evidence showing significant differences between the two groups, including sexuality, age of transition, ethnicity, IQ, fetishism, and quality of adjustment.

John Bancroft (sexologist)

John Bancroft
Criticism of the typology has come from sexologists John Bancroft and Charles Allen Moser, psychologist Margaret Nichols, academics Larry Nuttbrock and Jaimie Veale.