Blenheim Palace

BlenheimBlenheim EstateBlenheim Great Parkpalacea suitable houseBleinheimBlenheim Column of VictoryBlenheim Palace EstateBlenheim ParkBritain's great palaces
Blenheim Palace (pronounced ) is a monumental country house in Blenheim, Oxfordshire, England.wikipedia
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John Vanbrugh

Sir John VanbrughVanbrughJohn Vanburgh
The project soon became the subject of political infighting, with the Crown cancelling further financial support in 1712, Marlborough's three-year voluntary exile to the Continent, the fall from influence of his duchy and lasting damage to the reputation of the architect Sir John Vanbrugh.
Sir John Vanbrugh (24 January 1664 (baptised) – 26 March 1726) was an English architect and dramatist, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
The palace is notable as the birthplace and ancestral home of Sir Winston Churchill.
Churchill was born at the family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power.

Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

Sarah ChurchillDuchess of MarlboroughSarah, Duchess of Marlborough
In 1678, Churchill married Sarah Jennings, and in April that year, he was sent by Charles II to The Hague to negotiate a convention on the deployment of the English army in Flanders.
Sarah tirelessly campaigned on behalf of the Whigs, while also devoting much of her time to building projects such as Blenheim Palace.

Duke of Marlborough (title)

Duke of MarlboroughDukes of MarlboroughDukedom of Marlborough
It is the principal residence of the Dukes of Marlborough, and the only non-royal, non-episcopal country house in England to hold the title of palace.
The 7th Duke was the paternal grandfather of the British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, born at Blenheim Palace on 30 November 1874.

English country house

country housestately homecountry houses
Blenheim Palace (pronounced ) is a monumental country house in Blenheim, Oxfordshire, England.
Some of the best known of England's country houses were built by one architect at one particular time: Montacute House, Chatsworth House, and Blenheim Palace are examples.

Nicholas Hawksmoor

HawksmoorHawksmoor.
Vanbrugh, a popular dramatist, was an untrained architect, who usually worked in conjunction with the trained and practical Nicholas Hawksmoor.
Hawksmoor worked alongside the principal architects of the time, Christopher Wren and John Vanbrugh, and contributed to the design of some of the most notable buildings of the period, including St Paul's Cathedral, Wren's City of London churches, Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.

Consuelo Vanderbilt

Duchess of MarlboroughConsueloConsuelo, Duchess of Marlborough
At the end of the 19th century, the palace was saved from ruin by funds gained from the 9th Duke of Marlborough's marriage to American railroad heiress, Consuelo Vanderbilt.
Determined to secure the highest-ranking mate possible for her only daughter, a union that would emphasize the preeminence of the Vanderbilt family in New York society, Alva Vanderbilt engineered a meeting between Consuelo and the indebted, titled Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough, chatelain of Blenheim Palace.

Blindheim

Blenheim
The palace is named for the 1704 Battle of Blenheim, and thus ultimately after Blindheim (also known as Blenheim) in Bavaria.
Blenheim Palace in England was named in memory of the battle, and thus ultimately after Blindheim.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

Duke of MarlboroughMarlboroughJohn Churchill
It was originally intended to be a reward to John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough for his military triumphs against the French and Bavarians in the War of the Spanish Succession, culminating in the Battle of Blenheim.
The Queen lavished upon her favourite the royal manor of Woodstock and the promise of a fine palace commemorative of his great victory at Blenheim; but since her accession her relationship with Sarah had become progressively distant.

English Baroque

BaroqueEnglishEnglish baroque architecture
Designed in the rare, and short-lived, English Baroque style, architectural appreciation of the palace is as divided today as it was in the 1720s.
Each was capable of a fully developed architectural statement, yet they preferred to work in tandem, most notably at Castle Howard (1699) and Blenheim Palace (1705).

Woodstock Palace

WoodstockPalace of WoodstockWoodstock Manor
The estate given by the nation to Marlborough for the new palace was the manor of Woodstock, sometimes called the Palace of Woodstock, which had been a royal demesne, in reality little more than a deer park.
Woodstock Palace was mostly destroyed during the English Civil War, and the remaining stones were later used to build Blenheim Palace nearby.

Charles Spencer-Churchill, 9th Duke of Marlborough

9th Duke of MarlboroughDuke of MarlboroughThe Duke of Marlborough
At the end of the 19th century, the palace was saved from ruin by funds gained from the 9th Duke of Marlborough's marriage to American railroad heiress, Consuelo Vanderbilt.
Whilst they honeymooned in Europe, Marlborough told Consuelo that he actually loved another woman but had married her in order to "save Blenheim".

Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen AnneAnnePrincess Anne
The land was given as a gift, and construction began in 1705, with some financial support from Queen Anne.
In architecture, Sir John Vanbrugh constructed Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.

Rosamund Clifford

Fair Rosamond; or The Days of King Henry IIFair RosamundRosamond
Henry II housed his mistress Rosamund Clifford (sometimes known as "Fair Rosamund") there in a "bower and labyrinth"; a spring in which she is said to have bathed remains, named after her.
According to local tales, Rosamund's Bower is said to have been pulled down when Blenheim Palace was built.

Battle of Blenheim

BlenheimBataille de Hoogstetbattle of Höchstädt
The palace is named for the 1704 Battle of Blenheim, and thus ultimately after Blindheim (also known as Blenheim) in Bavaria.
In February 1705, Queen Anne, who had made Marlborough a Duke in 1702, granted him the Park of Woodstock and promised a sum of £240,000 to build a suitable house as a gift from a grateful crown in recognition of his victory – a victory which British historian Sir Edward Shepherd Creasy considered one of the pivotal battles in history, writing – "Had it not been for Blenheim, all Europe might at this day suffer under the effect of French conquests resembling those of Alexander in extent and those of the Romans in durability."

Palace

palazzopalazzipalaces
It is the principal residence of the Dukes of Marlborough, and the only non-royal, non-episcopal country house in England to hold the title of palace.
Blenheim Palace was built, on a different site, in the grounds of the disused royal Palace of Woodstock, and the name was also part of the extraordinary honour when the house was given by a grateful nation to a great general, the Duke of Marlborough.

Blenheim, Oxfordshire

BlenheimBlenheim (Oxon)
Blenheim Palace (pronounced ) is a monumental country house in Blenheim, Oxfordshire, England.
It includes Blenheim Palace.

State room

stateroomstate apartmentsstate apartment
Contained behind the southern facade are the principal state apartments; on the east side are the suites of private apartments of the Duke and Duchess, and on the west along the entire length of the piano nobile is given a long gallery originally conceived as a picture gallery, but is now the library.
There was usually an odd number of state rooms for the following reason: At the centre of the facade, the largest and most lavish room, (for example at Wilton House the famed Double Cube Room), or as at Blenheim Palace (right) this was a gathering place for the court of the honoured guest.

Capability Brown

Lancelot "Capability" BrownCapability" BrownLancelot 'Capability' Brown
Horace Walpole saw it in 1760, shortly before Capability Brown's improvements: "the bridge, like the beggars at the old duchess's gate, begs for a drop of water and is refused."
His work still endures at Croome Court (where he also designed the house), Blenheim Palace, Warwick Castle, Harewood House, Appuldurcombe House, Milton Abbey (and nearby Milton Abbas village), in traces at Kew Gardens and many other locations.

Louis Laguerre

Laguerre
The saloon was also to have been painted by Thornhill, but the Duchess suspected him of overcharging, so the commission was given to Louis Laguerre.
His wall paintings can be found in Blenheim Palace, Marlborough House, Petworth House, Burghley House Fetcham Park House and Chatsworth House.

James Moore (furniture designer)

James Moore
The craftsmen brought in by the Duchess, under the guidance of furniture designer James Moore, and Vanbrugh's assistant architect Hawksmoor, completed the work in perfect imitation of the greater masters.
James Moore assumed the position of clerk of the works at Blenheim Palace, completing and furnishing the house after Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, quarreled with her architect, John Vanbrugh; Moore had first appeared as the Duchess's "glass man", providing pier glasses in the house.

James Thornhill

Sir James Thornhill
The approach continues through the great portico into the hall, its ceiling painted by James Thornhill with the Duke's apotheosis, then on under a great triumphal arch, through the huge marble door-case with the Duke's marble effigy above it (bearing the ducal plaudit "Nor could Augustus better calm mankind"), and into the painted saloon, the most highly decorated room in the palace, where the Duke was to have sat enthroned.
In 1716 Thornhill painted the ceiling of the Great Hall in Blenheim Palace for John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, newly returned to the country after being prosecuted by the Tory ministry in the last years of Queen Anne.

English landscape garden

landscape gardenlandscape parkEnglish style
Blenheim sits in the centre of a large undulating park, a classic example of the English landscape garden movement and style.
The predecessors of the landscape garden in England were the great parks created by Sir John Vanbrugh (1664–1726) and Nicholas Hawksmoor at Castle Howard (1699–1712), Blenheim Palace (1705–1722), and the Claremont Landscape Garden at Claremont House (1715–1727).

Bladon

Bladon Churchyard
Other members of family are interred in St. Martin's parish churchyard at Bladon, a short distance from the palace.
The parish of St Martin's includes Blenheim Palace, the family seat of the Duke of Marlborough.

Corps de logis

central blockCorp de Logiscorps-de-logis
The plan of the palace's principal block (or corps de logis) is a rectangle (see plan) pierced by two courtyards; these serve as little more than light wells.
Examples of a corps de logis can be found in many of the most notable Classical Era buildings of Europe including the Palace of Versailles, Blenheim Palace and the Palazzo Pitti.