Blockchain

Blockchainsblockchain technologyblockblockchain-basedBlock Chainblock timeblockchain databaseblockchain databasesblock heightBlock time of blockchains
A blockchain, originally block chain, is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography.wikipedia
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Satoshi Nakamoto

Dorian NakamotoSatoshiSatoshi Nakomoto
Blockchain was invented by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency bitcoin.
As part of the implementation, they also devised the first blockchain database.

Cryptocurrency

cryptocurrenciescrypto-currencyaltcoin
Blockchain was invented by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency bitcoin.
The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database.

Bitcoin

bitcoinsbitcoin walletBitcoin blockchain
Blockchain was invented by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency bitcoin.
In March 2013 the blockchain temporarily split into two independent chains with different rules.

Chamber of Digital Commerce

Industry trade groups joined to create the Global Blockchain Forum in 2016, an initiative of the Chamber of Digital Commerce.
The Chamber of Digital Commerce is an American advocacy group that promotes the emerging industry behind blockchain technology, bitcoin, digital currency and digital assets.

Distributed ledger

distributed ledger technologyDistributed Ledger Technology (DLT)
For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks.
One form of distributed ledger design is the blockchain system, which can be either public or private.

Payment rail

Blockchain is considered a type of payment rail.
Blockchain is considered a newer type of payment rail, as are centralized electronic payment systems such as PayPal and Venmo.

Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer network
For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks.
Filecoin is an open source, public, cryptocurrency and digital payment system intended to be a blockchain-based cooperative digital storage and data retrieval method.

Byzantine fault

ByzantineByzantine FailuresByzantine fault tolerance
Although blockchain records are not unalterable, blockchains may be considered secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance.
The bitcoin network works in parallel to generate a blockchain with proof-of-work allowing the system to overcome Byzantine failures and reach a coherent global view of the system's state.

Trusted timestamping

timestamptimestampedDecentralized timestamping
Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data (generally represented as a merkle tree root hash).
Digital data can be hashed and the hash can be incorporated into a transaction stored in the blockchain, which serves as a secure proof of the exact time at which that data existed.

Proof-of-stake

proof of stakeDPOS (Delegated Proof of Stake Algorithm)generates
Alternative consensus methods include proof-of-stake.
Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus.

Hashcash

Nakamoto improved the design in an important way using a Hashcash-like method to add blocks to the chain without requiring them to be signed by a trusted party.
Blocks accepted from miners form the bitcoin blockchain that is a growing ledger of every bitcoin transaction since the coin's first creation.

Bitcoin network

bitcoin miningminingBitcoin protocol
For example, the bitcoin network and Ethereum network are both based on blockchain.
Transactions are recorded into a distributed, replicated public database known as the blockchain, with consensus achieved by a proof-of-work system called mining.

Ethereum

EtherETHETH blockchain
For example, the bitcoin network and Ethereum network are both based on blockchain. The block time for Ethereum is set to between 14 and 15 seconds, while for bitcoin it is 10 minutes.
Ethereum is an open-source, public, blockchain-based distributed computing platform and operating system featuring smart contract (scripting) functionality.

Merkle tree

hash treeMerkle hash treeTiger Tree Hash
Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data (generally represented as a merkle tree root hash).
Blockchain (database)

UBS

UBS AGUBS Investment BankUBS Group AG
Banks such as UBS are opening new research labs dedicated to blockchain technology in order to explore how blockchain can be used in financial services to increase efficiency and reduce costs.
In late 2016, UBS established a blockchain technology research lab in London to advance its cyber security and encryption of client activities.

Decentralization

decentralizeddecentralisationdecentralised
Decentralized consensus has therefore been claimed with a blockchain.
Blockchain based networks are designed to support decentralization by way of a cryptographic distributed triple-entry accounting ledger, typically with “layers” where each layer is defined by an interoperable open protocol on top of which network participants can transact and build products or services without requiring permission from central authorities.

CryptoKitties

Another blockchain game is CryptoKitties, launched in November 2017.
CryptoKitties is a blockchain based video game developed by Axiom Zen that allows players to purchase, collect, breed and sell various types of virtual cats.

Smart contract

smart contractsDigital contractscontracts
Blockchain-based smart contracts are proposed contracts that could be partially or fully executed or enforced without human interaction.
With the present implementations, based on blockchains, "smart contract" is mostly used more specifically in the sense of general purpose computation that takes place on a blockchain or distributed ledger.

Distributed networking

Distributed Network
The decentralized blockchain may use ad-hoc message passing and distributed networking.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computation is based on a decentralized, distributed network, including the distributed ledger technology blockchain.

Hyperledger

Hyperledger project
Hyperledger is a cross-industry collaborative effort from the Linux Foundation to support blockchain-based distributed ledgers, with projects under this initiative including Hyperledger Burrow (by Monax) and Hyperledger Fabric (spearheaded by IBM)
Hyperledger (or the Hyperledger project) is an umbrella project of open source blockchains and related tools, started in December 2015 by the Linux Foundation and supported by big industry players like IBM, Intel and SAP to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers.

Video game

video gamesgamevideogame
Some video games are based on blockchain technology.
A new platform of video games emerged in late 2017 in which users could take ownership of game assets (digital assets) using Blockchain technologies.

Decentralized computing

decentralizeddecentralisedAutonomy and decentralization
A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that any involved record cannot be altered retroactively, without the alteration of all subsequent blocks.
Blockchain

Double-spending

double spending51% attack51% attacks
The invention of the blockchain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double-spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server.
Instead, transactions are recorded in a public ledger called a blockchain.

Proof of Existence

Proof of Existence is an online service that verifies the existence of computer files as of a specific time
Proof of Existence is an online service that verifies the existence of computer files as of a specific time via timestamped transactions in the bitcoin blockchain.

Privacy and blockchain

Privacy and blockchain
A blockchain is a public, shared database that records transactions between two parties.