Bloemfontein

Bloemfontein, South AfricaTempebloemBloemfonteainBloemfontein concentration campBloemfontein, Free StateBloemfontein, South Africa,Bloemfontein, ZABloemfontein/MangaungMangaung
Bloemfontein ( ; Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.wikipedia
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Free State (province)

Free StateOrange Free StateFree State province
Bloemfontein ( ; Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa. From 1902–10 it served as the capital of the Orange River Colony and since that time as the provincial capital of the Free State.
Its capital is Bloemfontein, which is also South Africa's judicial capital.

Cape Town

Cape Town, South AfricaCapeCape Town, Western Cape
Bloemfontein ( ; Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa. The rail line from Cape Town provided a centrally located railway station, and proved critical to the British in occupying the city later.
The other two capitals are located in Pretoria (the administrative capital where the is based, the President has a Cape Town office at Tuynhuys next to Parliament) and Bloemfontein (the judicial capital where the is located, although the highest court, the sits in Johannesburg ).

Pretoria

Pretoria, GautengPretoria, South AfricaSilverton
Bloemfontein ( ; Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.
It is one of the country's three capital cities, serving as the seat of the administrative branch of government (Cape Town is the legislative capital and Bloemfontein the judicial capital), and of foreign embassies to South Africa.

Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality

MangaungMangaung Metro Mangaung Metroplitan Municipality
Situated at an altitude of 1395 m above sea level, the city is home to approximately 520,000 residents and forms part of the Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality which has a population of 747,431.
Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality is a metropolitan municipality which governs Bloemfontein and surrounding towns in the Free State province of South Africa.

National Women's Monument

The city hosts numerous museums, including the National Women's Monument, the Anglo-Boer War Museum, the National Museum, and the Oliewenhuis Art Museum
The Women's Monument or Vrouemonument in Bloemfontein, South Africa, is a monument commemorating the suffering of some 27,000 Boer women and children who died in British concentration camps during the Second Boer War.

Boyden Observatory

BloemfonteinBoyden StationArequipa
Bloemfontein also host sub-Saharan Africa's first digital planetarium, the Naval Hill Planetarium and Boyden Observatory, an astronomical research observatory erected by Harvard University.
Boyden Observatory is an astronomical research observatory and science education centre located in Maselspoort, 20 km north-east of the city of Bloemfontein in Free State, South Africa.

Government House, Orange Free State

Government House of the Orange Free StateGovernment HouseOliewenhuis Art Museum
The city hosts numerous museums, including the National Women's Monument, the Anglo-Boer War Museum, the National Museum, and the Oliewenhuis Art Museum
Government House, located in Bloemfontein, was the official residence of the Governor of the Orange Free State, South Africa.

Anglo-Boer War Museum

The city hosts numerous museums, including the National Women's Monument, the Anglo-Boer War Museum, the National Museum, and the Oliewenhuis Art Museum
The Anglo-Boer War Museum (also known as The War Museum of the Boer Republics) in Bloemfontein is the only museum in the world dedicated solely to the Anglo-Boer Wars of 1899 to 1902.

Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free State
With colonial policy shifts, the region changed into the Orange River Sovereignty (1848–54) and eventually the Orange Free State Republic (1854–1902). The old Orange Free State's presidential residence the Old Presidency is currently a museum and cultural space in the city.
Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein.

J. R. R. Tolkien

TolkienJ.R.R. TolkienJRR Tolkien
The writer J. R. R. Tolkien was born in the city on 3 January 1892, though his family left South Africa following the death of his father, Arthur Tolkien, while Tolkien was only three.
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (now Free State Province in South Africa) to Arthur Reuel Tolkien (1857–1896), an English bank manager, and his wife Mabel, née Suffield (1870–1904).

Orange River Colony

Orange Rivera British colonycolony
From 1902–10 it served as the capital of the Orange River Colony and since that time as the provincial capital of the Free State.
During the Second Boer War, the British forces entered the territory of the Orange Free State and occupied the capital Bloemfontein on 13 March 1900.

Old Presidency

The old Orange Free State's presidential residence the Old Presidency is currently a museum and cultural space in the city.
The Old Presidency or Ou Presidensie (Afrikaans) is a museum, art gallery and theatre in the city of Bloemfontein, South Africa, located on President Brand Street in the heart of the city.

Bloemfontein Conference

peace conference
In 1899 the city was the site of the Bloemfontein Conference, which failed to prevent the outbreak of the Second Boer War.
The Bloemfontein Conference was a meeting that took place in Bloemfontein, capital of the Orange Free State from May 31 until June 5, 1899.

Bloemfontein railway station

Bloemfonteinrailway station
The rail line from Cape Town provided a centrally located railway station, and proved critical to the British in occupying the city later.
Bloemfontein central railway station is a railway station located in Bloemfontein, Free State Province, South Africa.

Resident (title)

ResidentBritish ResidentResident Minister
Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein.
in 1845 the resident 'north of the Orange river' chose his residency at Bloemfontein, which became the capital of the Orange River Sovereignty in 1848. In 1854 the British abandoned the Sovereignty, and the independent Boer republic of the Orange Free State was established

Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa

Supreme Court of AppealAppellate DivisionAppeal Court
The city of Bloemfontein hosts the Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa, the Franklin Game Reserve, Naval Hill, the Maselspoort Resort and the Sand du Plessis Theatre.
location = Bloemfontein

Orange River Sovereignty

Dutch Free State
With colonial policy shifts, the region changed into the Orange River Sovereignty (1848–54) and eventually the Orange Free State Republic (1854–1902). Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein.
Sutton was succeeded as Resident on 16 January 1846 by Captain Henry Douglas Warden, who bought the farm Bloemfontein to establish the capital.

Winburg

Warden originally chose the site largely because of its proximity to the main route to Winburg, the spacious open country, and the absence of horse sickness.
The nearest city, Bloemfontein, is 120 km away.

Tolkien family

Arthur Reuel TolkienHilary Arthur Reuel TolkienJ.R.R. Tolkien's family
The writer J. R. R. Tolkien was born in the city on 3 January 1892, though his family left South Africa following the death of his father, Arthur Tolkien, while Tolkien was only three.
Arthur did not follow his father into the traditional Tolkien trade in pianos, which many of his London cousins also followed; instead he became a bank clerk and ended up moving to Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (now part of South Africa), where he became manager of the Bloemfontein branch of the Bank of Africa.

Union of South Africa

South AfricaUnionSouth African
In 1910 it became the Judicial capital of the Union of South Africa
Owing to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached in which every province would be dealt a share of the benefits of the capital: the administration would be seated in Pretoria (Transvaal), Parliament would be in Cape Town (Cape Province), the Appellate Division would be in Bloemfontein (Orange Free State).

Botshabelo

Botshabello
To counter this problem, a 55 km east ward expansion called Botshabelo was added in 1979. The Bloemfontein municipality channelled of all black urbanisation to Thaba Nchu and Botshabelo.
Botshabelo, meaning "a place of refuge", is a large township set up in 1979 by the then apartheid government 45 km east of Bloemfontein in the present-day Free State province of South Africa.

Thaba 'Nchu

Thaba NchuThaba Nchu DistrictThaba' Nchu
The Bloemfontein municipality channelled of all black urbanisation to Thaba Nchu and Botshabelo.
Thaba 'Nchu is a town in Free State, South Africa, 63 km east of Bloemfontein and 17 km east of Botshabelo.

National Party (South Africa)

National PartyNPNationalist
From 1 to 9 January 1914, James Barry Munnik Hertzog and his supporters met in Bloemfontein to form the National Party of the Orange Free State, and to lay down its principles, following Hertzog's exit from the South African Party in 1913.
The National Party was founded in Bloemfontein in 1914 by Afrikaner nationalists soon after the establishment of the Union of South Africa.

Battle of Paardeberg

PaardebergPaardeberg DayBattle of Paardeberg Drift
On 13 March 1900, following the Battle of Paardeberg, British forces captured the city and built a concentration camp nearby to house Boer women and children.
The army of Boer General Piet Cronjé was retreating from its entrenched position at Magersfontein towards Bloemfontein after its lines of communication were cut by Major General John French, whose cavalry had recently outflanked the Boer position to relieve Kimberley.

Heidedal

The municipality demolished the Cape Stands residential area which was occupied by the city's coloured population and moved the residents to Heidedal.
Heidedal is an 82% Coloured suburb of the city of Bloemfontein in South Africa.