Blood film

blood smearperipheral blood smearblood smearsPeripheral blood smearsblood filmsblood slideperipheral blood filmbloodblood film smearsdirect blood smear
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.wikipedia
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Malaria

cerebral malariamalarial fevermalarial
Blood films are examined in the investigation of hematological (blood) disorders and are routinely employed to look for blood parasites, such as those of malaria and filariasis.
Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests.

Romanowsky stain

azure stainsRomanowsky methodAzure 1
Routine analysis of blood in medical laboratories is usually performed on blood films stained with Romanowsky stains such as Wright's stain, Giemsa stain, or Diff-Quik.
Romanowsky-type stains are used to differentiate cells for microscopic examination in pathologic specimens, especially blood and bone marrow films, and to detect parasites such as malaria within the blood.

Diff-Quik

Routine analysis of blood in medical laboratories is usually performed on blood films stained with Romanowsky stains such as Wright's stain, Giemsa stain, or Diff-Quik.
It is most frequently used for blood films and cytopathological smears, including fine needle aspirates.

Wright's stain

Wright stainWright-Giemsa stainWright
Routine analysis of blood in medical laboratories is usually performed on blood films stained with Romanowsky stains such as Wright's stain, Giemsa stain, or Diff-Quik.
It is used primarily to stain peripheral blood smears, urine samples, and bone marrow aspirates which are examined under a light microscope.

Platelet

plateletsplatelet aggregationplatelet count
These stains allow for the detection of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet abnormalities.
On a stained blood smear, platelets appear as dark purple spots, about 20% the diameter of red blood cells.

Hematology

Haematologyhematologisthaematologist
Blood films are examined in the investigation of hematological (blood) disorders and are routinely employed to look for blood parasites, such as those of malaria and filariasis.

Filariasis

filarialfilarial wormsfilarial nematodes
Blood films are examined in the investigation of hematological (blood) disorders and are routinely employed to look for blood parasites, such as those of malaria and filariasis.
Filariasis is usually diagnosed by identifying microfilariae on Giemsa stained, thin and thick blood film smears, using the "gold standard" known as the finger prick test.

Complete blood count

full blood countwhite blood cell countCBC
Blood smear examination is usually performed in conjunction with a complete blood count in order to investigate abnormal results or confirm results that the automated analyzer has flagged as unreliable.
Before the advent of automated hematology analyzers, CBCs were performed manually, by counting cells in a diluted sample of blood on a device called a hemocytometer, and by viewing a slide prepared with a sample of the patient's blood (a blood film, or peripheral smear) under a microscope.

Giemsa stain

GiemsaGiemsa stainingGiemsa-stained
Routine analysis of blood in medical laboratories is usually performed on blood films stained with Romanowsky stains such as Wright's stain, Giemsa stain, or Diff-Quik.
Giemsa stain is a classic blood film stain for peripheral blood smears and bone marrow specimens.

Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia

microangiopathic hemolysismicroangipathic hemolytic anemiathrombotic microangiopathies
Disorders such as iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, megaloblastic anemia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia result in characteristic abnormalities on the blood film.
It is identified by the finding of anemia and schistocytes on microscopy of the blood film.

White blood cell differential

differential countleukocyte differential countmanual differential
This is known as a manual white blood cell differential.
White blood cell differentials may be performed by an automated analyzer – a machine designed to run laboratory tests – or manually, by examining blood smears under a microscope.

Sickle cell disease

sickle cell anemiasickle-cell diseasesickle-cell anemia
Disorders such as iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, megaloblastic anemia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia result in characteristic abnormalities on the blood film.
A blood film may show features of hyposplenism (target cells and Howell-Jolly bodies).

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
Microscopic examination of the shape, size, and coloration of red blood cells is useful for determining the cause of anemia.
Examination of a stained blood smear using a microscope can also be helpful, and it is sometimes a necessity in regions of the world where automated analysis is less accessible.

Toxic granulation

Qualitative abnormalities of white blood cells, like toxic granulation, are also visible on the blood smear.
Along with Döhle bodies and toxic vacuolation, which are two other findings in the cytoplasm of granulocytes, toxic granulation is a peripheral blood film finding suggestive of an inflammatory process.

Red blood cell

red blood cellserythrocyteserythroid
These stains allow for the detection of white blood cell, red blood cell, and platelet abnormalities.
Many diseases involving red blood cells are diagnosed with a blood film (or peripheral blood smear), where a thin layer of blood is smeared on a microscope slide.

Babesiosis

Equine piroplasmosisTexas tick feverpiroplasmosis
Blood smear examination is the preferred diagnostic method for certain parasitic infections, such as malaria and babesiosis.
The definitive diagnostic test is the identification of parasites on a Giemsa-stained thin-film blood smear.

Iron-deficiency anemia

iron deficiency anemiairon deficiency anaemiairon deficiency
Disorders such as iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, megaloblastic anemia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia result in characteristic abnormalities on the blood film.
A low mean corpuscular volume, a low mean corpuscular hemoglobin or mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and the corresponding appearance of red blood cells on visual examination of a peripheral blood smear narrows the problem to a microcytic anemia (literally, a small red blood cell anemia).

Megaloblastic anemia

megaloblastic anaemiamegaloblastic anaemiasa type of anemia
Disorders such as iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, megaloblastic anemia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia result in characteristic abnormalities on the blood film.

Malaria antigen detection tests

antigen-basedMalaria Rapid Diagnostic Testsmalaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)
Immunochromatographic capture procedures (rapid diagnostic tests such as the malaria antigen detection tests) are nonmicroscopic diagnostic options for the laboratory that may not have appropriate microscopy expertise available.
None of the rapid tests are currently as sensitive as a thick blood film, nor as cheap.

Blood

human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.

Microscope slide

cover slipslidemicroscopic slide
A blood film—or peripheral blood smear—is a thin layer of blood smeared on a glass microscope slide and then stained in such a way as to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically.

Apicomplexa

ApicomplexiaapicomplexanSporozoa
Blood films are examined in the investigation of hematological (blood) disorders and are routinely employed to look for blood parasites, such as those of malaria and filariasis.

Fixation (histology)

fixationfixativefixed
The slide is left to air dry, after which the blood is fixed to the slide by immersing it briefly in methanol.

Methanol

methyl alcoholwood alcoholCH 3 OH
The slide is left to air dry, after which the blood is fixed to the slide by immersing it briefly in methanol.

Staining

stainstainedstains
After fixation, the slide is stained to distinguish the cells from each other.