Blood libel

Statue of Simon of Trent, an Italian child whose disappearance and death was blamed on the leaders of the city's Jewish community
The crucifixion of William of Norwich depicted on a rood screen in Holy Trinity church, Loddon, Norfolk
Simon of Trent blood libel. Illustration in Hartmann Schedel's Weltchronik, 1493
Painting of Werner of Oberwesel as a martyr
From an 18th-century etching from Brückenturm. Above: The murdered body of Simon of Trent. Below: The "Judensau"
Fresco in St Paul's Church in Sandomierz, Poland, depicting blood libel
Antisemitic flier in Kyiv, 1915: "Christians, take care of your children!!! It will be Jewish Passover on 17 March."
Painting of blood libel in Sandomierz Cathedral

Antisemitic canard which falsely accuses Jews of murdering Christian boys in order to use their blood in the performance of religious rituals.

- Blood libel

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Antisemitic canard

Ethnic or religious group.

A Nazi German cartoon circa 1938 depicts Churchill as a Jewish-controlled octopus encircling the globe.
First edition of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
White Russian anti-Communist and antisemitic propaganda poster, c. 1919. Senior Bolsheviks – Sverdlov, Zinoviev, Lenin, Trotsky, Kamenev, Radek – sacrifice an allegorical character representing Russia to a statue of Karl Marx.
16th-century painting showing alleged host desecration by Jews in Passau, Germany
Jews were accused of the ritual murder of William of Norwich in 1144.
17th-century Judensau engraving, based on a 15th-century painting
Representation of a massacre of the Jews in 1349 Antiquitates Flandriae (Royal Library of Belgium manuscript 1376/77)
1943 Nazi propaganda poster by Mjölnir: "He is to blame for the war!"
"12,000 Jewish soldiers died on the field of honor for the fatherland." A leaflet published in 1920 by German Jewish veterans to counter the stab-in-the-back myth.

Jews were also accused of ritually consuming the blood of Christians.

Blois

Commune and the capital city of Loir-et-Cher department, in Centre-Val de Loire, France, on the banks of the lower Loire river between Orléans and Tours.

Panoramic view of Blois on the Loire river, from Vienne, on the lef bank
Château of Blois (seen from the South)
Château of Blois (seen from inside)
Robert-Houdin House of Magic
Former Poulain Chocolate Factory
Denis-Papin staircase in 2018
Blois Cathedral
Blois Cathedral, Town Hall, and the Rosarium seen from the Bishopric Gardens
The Maison des Acrobates
The Jacques-Gabriel Bridge, with the cathedral behind, over the Loire river
St. Nicholas Blois Church
center|Lodges Façade of the Château of Blois, on Francis I wing, seen from Victor-Hugo Square.
center|Town hall.
center|Rosarium in the Bishopric Gardens.
center|Street cross between rue des Papegaults and rue des Petis Degrés St. Louis.

In 1171, Blois was the site of a blood libel against its Jewish community that led to 31 Jews (by some accounts 40) being burned to death.

Norwich

City and district of Norfolk, England, of which it is the county town.

Norwich Cathedral is one of the great Norman buildings of England.
Norwich Castle's 12th-century keep
St Ethelbert's Gate at Tombland was built as penance for riots which occurred in the 1270s.
Mousehold Heath, Norwich by Norfolk-based artist John Crome
Founded in 1771, the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital cared for the city's poor and sick. It closed in 2003 after services were moved to the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital.
The Octagon Chapel
Map of Norwich 1781
St Peter Mancroft
Surrey House, historic headquarters of the Norwich Union insurance company
Waterloo Park, one of six parks built during the 1930s to help alleviate unemployment in the city
Jarrolds department store has been based in Norwich since 1823.
The University of East Anglia, which opened in 1963
Norwich City Hall
Norwich Guildhall, the seat of local government from the early 15th century until 1938
Population of Norwich
Norwich University of the Arts
Pulls Ferry, once a 15th-century watergate
The Forum, housing, among other things, the Norfolk and Norwich Millennium Library and the BBC's East of England headquarters and studios
Norwich Arts Centre, opened in 1977, on St. Benedict's Street
The Theatre Royal, Norwich's largest theatre
Norwich Playhouse, located on St. George's Street
Dragon Hall, Norwich, a medieval merchant's house. Taken on the 2006 Sponsored Bike Ride for The Norfolk Churches Trust, 2006-09-09. View from King Street of house front, sign hanging from iron dragon reads 'Dragon Hall'.
A house in the Cathedral close in Norwich.
Anglia House, the headquarters of Anglia Television, today ITV Anglia
The Layer Monument, marble polychrome c. 1600
Riverside flats, Norwich
Carrow Road – the home of Norwich City FC
The Pablo Fanque House student accommodation building in Norwich City Centre, as seen from the lookout point at Kett's Heights in Norwich.
The Royal Arcade, designed by George Skipper, opened in 1899.
Norwich Market With St Peter Mancroft church and the Sir Garnet public house in the background.
Norwich railway station
Norwich bus station
The River Wensum near Norwich Cathedral and the Maid's Head Hotel
Cycling
Sea fog clinging to the East Anglian coast, February 2008; Norwich is denoted by the yellow dot.
Norwich Cathedral lies close to Tombland in the city centre.
Elm Hill is an intact medieval street.
Cow Tower stands on the banks of the River Wensum.
The varying styles of architecture along Gentleman's Walk

In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were falsely accused of ritual murder after a boy (William of Norwich) was found dead with stab wounds.

William of Norwich

English boy whose disappearance and killing was, at the time, attributed to the Jewish community of Norwich.

Painting at the church of St Peter and St Paul, Eye, Suffolk, c. undefined 1500
The crucifixion of William depicted on a rood screen in Holy Trinity church, Loddon, Norfolk
The site of the chapel consecrated to William on Mousehold Heath (2010). The chapel was demolished during the English Reformation; its remains are listed as a scheduled monument.
The rood screen of St John's Church, Garboldisham, Norfolk
A map of medieval Norwich reproduced in Jessopp and James' edition of the Life. The "Jewry" is to the left of the castle in the centre, part of the "New Town" area on the other side of the town from the monastery and the wood.

It is the first known medieval accusation against Jews of ritual murder.

Edict of Expulsion

Royal decree issued by King Edward I of England on 18 July 1290 expelling all Jews from the Kingdom of England.

Expulsions of Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600

An image of the Jew as a diabolical figure who hated Christ started to become widespread, and myths such as the tale of the Wandering Jew and allegations of ritual murders originated and spread throughout England as well as in Scotland and Wales.

Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln

English boy whose death in Lincoln was falsely attributed to Jews.

The body of Hugh in its coffin, drawn by Samuel Hieronymus Grimm (1791)
Drawing of a 13th-century statue of St Hugh at Lincoln Cathedral, by 18th-century antiquary Smart Lethieullier. This statue was posed at the head of the shrine of Little St Hugh.

Hugh became one of the best known of the blood libel 'saints'; generally children whose deaths were interpreted as Jewish human sacrifices.

Well poisoning

Act of malicious manipulation of potable water resources in order to cause illness or death, or to deny an opponent access to fresh water resources.

2000 Jews burned to death in Strasbourg 1349 during the Black Death

Additionally, well poisoning was one of the three gravest antisemitic accusations made against Jews during the pre-modern period (the other two being host desecration and blood libel).

Lincoln, England

Cathedral city, non-metropolitan district, and the county town of Lincolnshire, England.

Brayford Pool
Lincoln Castle
Newport Arch, a third-century Roman gate
East Gate, Lincoln Castle
Norman West Front of Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral
Coat of arms of King James I added in 1617 when the monarch visited the city for nine days
12th century Jew's House
Frontage of Jews' Court on Steep Hill.
16th-century High Bridge
The west front of Lincoln Cathedral viewed through the Exchequer Gate, one of a number of surviving gates in the Cathedral Close walls.
Westgate water tower
Siemens Pelham Works
The first tanks were built in Lincoln
County council building on Newland
A view up Steep Hill towards the historic quarter of Bailgate.
Waterside Empowerment 2002 sculpture
Uphill Lincoln
High Bridge 'Glory Hole'
Lincoln
The University of Lincoln seen from The Swan (pub) balcony
Former Lincoln Christ's Hospital Girls' High School, is now occupied by Lincoln University Technical College.
Sincil Bank, home of Lincoln City

In 1255, the affair called "The Libel of Lincoln" in which prominent Lincoln Jews, accused of ritual murder of a Christian boy (Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln in medieval folklore) were sent to the Tower of London and 18 executed.

Kutaisi

One of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and the third-most populous city in Georgia, traditionally, second in importance, after the capital city of Tbilisi.

Kutaisi in 1870
Kutaisi in 1885
Bagrati Cathedral, originally built in the Middle Ages and recently repaired from damages suffered through centuries
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Kutaisi
Kutaisi State Historical Museum
Drama Theatre
Downtown Kutaisi
View of Kutaisi
Map of Kutaisi
Rustaveli bridge at night
TBC Bank in Kutaisi
Kutaisi International Airport
Colchis Fountain in main square
New Georgian Parliament Building in Kutaisi
Kutaisi Walk in Newport
A street in central Kutaisi
Church of Annunciation
Court of Appeals
Kutaisi Public School
Local synagogue built in 1886
Kutaisi State Opera

In March 1879, the city was the site of a blood libel trial that attracted attention all over Russia; the ten accused Jews were acquitted.

Trnava

City in western Slovakia, 47 km to the northeast of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river.

Square of the Holy Trinity
Town Hall
University of Trnava
Anton Malatinský Stadium
Pedestrian zone
Park of Belo IV
Gothic church of St.Nicolas
Aerial photography of Trnava
Town hall of Trnava

In 1494, 14 Jews were brought to death by burning following a blood libel.