Blood pressure

A healthcare worker measuring blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer.
A digital sphygmomanometer used for measuring blood pressure
Overview of main complications of persistent high blood pressure
Cardiac systole and diastole
Blood flow velocity waveforms in the central retinal artery (red) and vein (blue), measured by laser Doppler imaging in the eye fundus of a healthy volunteer.
Schematic of pressures in the circulation
A schematic representation of the arterial pressure waveform over one cardiac cycle. The notch in the curve is associated with closing of the aortic valve.
Taking blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer

Pressure of circulating blood against the walls of blood vessels.

- Blood pressure
A healthcare worker measuring blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer.

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Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)

Hypertension

Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)
Determinants of mean arterial pressure
Illustration depicting the effects of high blood pressure
Rates of hypertension in adult men in 2014.
Diagram illustrating the main complications of persistent high blood pressure
Image of veins from Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus
Graph showing, prevalence of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension compared between the four studies of NHANES

Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Heart

Muscular organ in most animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Muscular organ in most animals that pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Human heart during an autopsy
Computer-generated animation of a beating human heart
The human heart is in the middle of the thorax, with its apex pointing to the left.
Heart being dissected showing right and left ventricles, from above
Frontal section showing papillary muscles attached to the tricuspid valve on the right and to the mitral valve on the left via chordae tendineae.
Layers of the heart wall, including visceral and parietal pericardium
The swirling pattern of myocardium helps the heart pump effectively
Arterial supply to the heart (red), with other areas labelled (blue).
Autonomic innervation of the heart
Development of the human heart during the first eight weeks (top) and the formation of the heart chambers (bottom). In this figure, the blue and red colors represent blood inflow and outflow (not venous and arterial blood). Initially, all venous blood flows from the tail/atria to the ventricles/head, a very different pattern from that of an adult.
Blood flow through the valves
The cardiac cycle as correlated to the ECG
The x-axis reflects time with a recording of the heart sounds. The y-axis represents pressure.
Transmission of a cardiac action potential through the heart's conduction system
Conduction system of the heart
The prepotential is due to a slow influx of sodium ions until the threshold is reached followed by a rapid depolarization and repolarization. The prepotential accounts for the membrane reaching threshold and initiates the spontaneous depolarization and contraction of the cell; there is no resting potential.
3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right), tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve (top right).
The closure of the heart valves causes the heart sounds.
Cardiac cycle shown against ECG
Heart and its blood vessels, by Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century
Animated heart
Elize Ryd making a heart sign at a concert in 2018
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
Basic arthropod body structure – heart shown in red
The human heart viewed from the front
The human heart viewed from behind
The coronary circulation
The human heart viewed from the front and from behind
Frontal section of the human heart
An anatomical specimen of the heart
Heart illustration with circulatory system
Animated Heart 3d Model Rendered in Computer

The levels of electrolytes including calcium, potassium, and sodium can also influence the speed and regularity of the heart rate; low blood oxygen, low blood pressure and dehydration may increase it.

A man with congestive heart failure and marked jugular venous distension. External jugular vein marked by an arrow.

Heart failure

Set of manifestations caused by the failure of the heart's function as a pump supporting the blood flow through the body; its signs and symptoms result from a structural and/or functional abnormality of the heart, that disrupts its filling with blood or its ejecting of it during each heart beat.

Set of manifestations caused by the failure of the heart's function as a pump supporting the blood flow through the body; its signs and symptoms result from a structural and/or functional abnormality of the heart, that disrupts its filling with blood or its ejecting of it during each heart beat.

A man with congestive heart failure and marked jugular venous distension. External jugular vein marked by an arrow.
Signs and symptoms of severe heart failure
Severe peripheral pitting edema
Kerley B lines in acute cardiac decompensation. The short, horizontal lines can be found everywhere in the right lung.
Model of a normal heart (left); and a weakened heart, with over-stretched muscle and dilation of left ventricle (right); both during diastole
Chest radiograph of a lung with distinct Kerley B lines, as well as an enlarged heart (as shown by an increased cardiothoracic ratio, cephalization of pulmonary veins, and minor pleural effusion as seen for example in the right horizontal fissure. Yet, no obvious lung edema is seen. Overall, this indicates intermediate severity (stage II) heart failure.
Siderophages (one indicated by white arrow) and pulmonary congestion, indicating left congestive heart failure
Ultrasound showing severe systolic heart failure
Congestive heart failure with small bilateral effusions
Kerley B lines

ADHERE Tree rule indicates that people with blood urea nitrogen < 43 mg/dl and systolic blood pressure at least 115 mm Hg have less than 10% chance of inpatient death or complications.

Anatomical diagram of RAS

Renin–angiotensin system

Anatomical diagram of RAS
RAAS schematic
Renal hormone regulation schematic
Flowchart showing the clinical effects of RAAS activity and the sites of action of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers.

The renin–angiotensin system (RAS), or renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), is a hormone system that regulates blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance, and systemic vascular resistance.

Steroidogenesis, showing aldosterone synthesis at upper-right corner.

Aldosterone

Main mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

Main mineralocorticoid steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

Steroidogenesis, showing aldosterone synthesis at upper-right corner.
The renin–angiotensin system, showing role of aldosterone between the adrenal glands and the kidneys
Corticosteroid biosynthetic pathway in rat
Corticosterone

It plays a central role in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure, plasma sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+) levels.

Captopril, the first synthetic ACE inhibitor

ACE inhibitor

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are a class of medication used primarily for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure.

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) are a class of medication used primarily for the treatment of high blood pressure and heart failure.

Captopril, the first synthetic ACE inhibitor
Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system

They work by causing relaxation of blood vessels as well as a decrease in blood volume, which leads to lower blood pressure and decreased oxygen demand from the heart.

The kidneys lie in the retroperitoneal space behind the abdomen, and act to filter blood to create urine.

Kidney

The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates.

The kidneys are two reddish-brown bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates.

The kidneys lie in the retroperitoneal space behind the abdomen, and act to filter blood to create urine.
Images showing the human trunk, with positions of the organs show, and kidneys seen at the vertebral level of T12 to L3.
1. Renal pyramid •
2. Interlobular artery •
3. Renal artery •
4. Renal vein
5. Renal hilum •
6. Renal pelvis •
7. Ureter •
8. Minor calyx •
9. Renal capsule •
10. Inferior renal capsule •
11. Superior renal capsule •
12. Interlobular vein •
13. Nephron •
14. Renal sinus •
15. Major calyx •
16. Renal papilla •
17. Renal column
The nephron, shown here, is the functional unit of the kidneys. Its parts are labelled except the (gray) connecting tubule located after the (dark red) distal convoluted tubule and before the large (gray) collecting duct (mislabeled collection duct).
Four main processes are involved in the creation of urine.
Secretion and reabsorption of various substances throughout the nephron
A depiction of peritoneal dialysis.
Hökarpanna, Swedish pork and kidney stew
thumb|Normal adult right kidney as seen on abdominal ultrasound with a pole to pole measurement of 9.34 cm.
A CT scan of the abdomen showing the position of the kidneys. The left cross-section in the upper abdomen shows the liver on the left side of scan (right side of body). Center: cross-section showing the kidneys below the liver and spleen. Right: further cross-section through the left kidney.
Image showing the structures that the kidney lies near.
Left kidney
Right Kidney
Kidney
Right Kidney
Right kidney
Left kidney
Kidneys

The kidney participates in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid–base balance, electrolyte concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and blood pressure.

3D Medical animation still showing normal blood vessel (L) vs. vasodilation (R)

Vasodilation

Widening of blood vessels.

Widening of blood vessels.

3D Medical animation still showing normal blood vessel (L) vs. vasodilation (R)

Therefore, dilation of arterial blood vessels (mainly the arterioles) decreases blood pressure.

Transmission electron micrograph showing vasoconstriction of a microvessel by pericytes and endothelial cells resulting in the deformation of an erythrocyte (E).

Vasoconstriction

Narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

Narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

Transmission electron micrograph showing vasoconstriction of a microvessel by pericytes and endothelial cells resulting in the deformation of an erythrocyte (E).

Vasoconstrictors are also used clinically to increase blood pressure or to reduce local blood flow.

A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, causing catastrophic thrombus formation, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream.

Myocardial infarction

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, causing catastrophic thrombus formation, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream.
Cross section showing anterior left ventricle wall infarction
Diagram showing the blood supply to the heart by the two major blood vessels, the left and right coronary arteries (labelled LCA and RCA). A myocardial infarction (2) has occurred with blockage of a branch of the left coronary artery (1).
A 12-lead ECG showing an inferior STEMI due to reduced perfusion through the right coronary artery. Elevation of the ST segment can be seen in leads II, III and aVF.
ECG : AMI with ST elevation in V2-4
Inserting a stent to widen the artery.

Other less common symptoms include weakness, light-headedness, palpitations, and abnormalities in heart rate or blood pressure.