Blood pressure

A healthcare worker measuring blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer.
A digital sphygmomanometer used for measuring blood pressure
Overview of main complications of persistent high blood pressure
Cardiac systole and diastole
Blood flow velocity waveforms in the central retinal artery (red) and vein (blue), measured by laser Doppler imaging in the eye fundus of a healthy volunteer.
Schematic of pressures in the circulation
A schematic representation of the arterial pressure waveform over one cardiac cycle. The notch in the curve is associated with closing of the aortic valve.
Taking blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer

Pressure of circulating blood against the walls of blood vessels.

- Blood pressure
A healthcare worker measuring blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer.

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The human circulatory system (simplified). Red indicates oxygenated blood carried in arteries. Blue indicates deoxygenated blood carried in veins. Capillaries join the arteries and veins.

Circulatory system

Several terms redirect here.

Several terms redirect here.

The human circulatory system (simplified). Red indicates oxygenated blood carried in arteries. Blue indicates deoxygenated blood carried in veins. Capillaries join the arteries and veins.
Blood flow in the pulmonary and systemic circulations showing capillary networks in the torso sections
Diagram of the human heart viewed from the front
The pulmonary circulation as it passes from the heart. Showing both the pulmonary and bronchial arteries.
Capillary bed
Diagram of capillary network joining the arterial system with the venous system.
Depiction of the heart, major veins and arteries constructed from body scans
Animation of a typical human red blood cell cycle in the circulatory system. This animation occurs at a faster rate (~20 seconds of the average 60-second cycle) and shows the red blood cell deforming as it enters capillaries, as well as the bars changing color as the cell alternates in states of oxygenation along the circulatory system.
Magnetic resonance angiography of aberrant subclavian artery
The open circulatory system of the grasshopper – made up of a heart, vessels and hemolymph. The hemolymph is pumped through the heart, into the aorta, dispersed into the head and throughout the hemocoel, then back through the ostia in the heart and the process repeated.
Flatworms, such as this Pseudoceros bifurcus, lack specialized circulatory organs.
Two-chambered heart of a fish
Human anatomical chart of blood vessels, with heart, lungs, liver and kidneys included. Other organs are numbered and arranged around it. Before cutting out the figures on this page, Vesalius suggests that readers glue the page onto parchment and gives instructions on how to assemble the pieces and paste the multilayered figure onto a base "muscle man" illustration. "Epitome", fol.14a. HMD Collection, WZ 240 V575dhZ 1543.
Image of veins from William Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, 1628

This elasticity helps to maintain the blood pressure throughout the body.

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. (Pulmonary artery labeled at upper right.)

Pulmonary artery

Artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

Artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. (Pulmonary artery labeled at upper right.)
Volume rendering of a high resolution CT scan of the thorax. The anterior thoracic wall, the airways and the pulmonary vessels anterior to the root of the lung have been digitally removed to visualize the different levels of the pulmonary circulation.
At the far end, pulmonary arteries (labelled at the bottom) become capillaries at the pulmonary alveoli.
Image showing main pulmonary artery coursing ventrally to the aortic root and trachea, and the right pulmonary artery passes dorsally to the ascending aorta, while the left pulmonary artery passes ventrally to the descending aorta.
Pulmonary circuit
Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery.
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary artery.Deep dissection.Anterior view.
CT scan of a normal lung, with different levels of pulmonary arteries.
Bronchial anatomy

The pulmonary artery pressure (PA pressure) is a measure of the blood pressure found in the main pulmonary artery.

A non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG)

Shock (circulatory)

State of insufficient blood flow to the tissues of the body as a result of problems with the circulatory system.

State of insufficient blood flow to the tissues of the body as a result of problems with the circulatory system.

A non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG)
Effects of inadequate perfusion on cell function.
Epinephrine auto-injector
Sepsis mortality

A decreased pulse pressure (systolic blood pressure minus diastolic blood pressure) or a fast heart rate raises concerns.

The importance of the Bayliss effect in maintaining a constant capillary flow independently of variations in arterial blood pressure

Myogenic mechanism

The importance of the Bayliss effect in maintaining a constant capillary flow independently of variations in arterial blood pressure

The myogenic mechanism is how arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow constant within the blood vessel.

Circadian variation in body temperature, ranging from about 37.5 °C from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., and falling to about 36.4 °C from 2 a.m. to 6 a.m.

Homeostasis

State of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions maintained by living systems.

State of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions maintained by living systems.

Circadian variation in body temperature, ranging from about 37.5 °C from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., and falling to about 36.4 °C from 2 a.m. to 6 a.m.
Birds huddling for warmth
Negative feedback at work in the regulation of blood sugar. Flat line is the set-point of glucose level and sine wave the fluctuations of glucose.
The respiratory center
Calcium homeostasis
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For instance, the arterial blood pressure in mammals is homeostatically controlled, and measured by stretch receptors in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinuses at beginnings of the internal carotid arteries.

Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopædia

Hydrostatics

Branch of fluid mechanics that studies the condition of the equilibrium of a floating body and submerged body "fluids at hydrostatic equilibrium and the pressure in a fluid, or exerted by a fluid, on an immersed body".

Branch of fluid mechanics that studies the condition of the equilibrium of a floating body and submerged body "fluids at hydrostatic equilibrium and the pressure in a fluid, or exerted by a fluid, on an immersed body".

Table of Hydraulics and Hydrostatics, from the 1728 Cyclopædia

It is also relevant to geophysics and astrophysics (for example, in understanding plate tectonics and the anomalies of the Earth's gravitational field), to meteorology, to medicine (in the context of blood pressure), and many other fields.

Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966.

Health

Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".

Health, according to the World Health Organization, is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".

Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966.
Percentage of overweight or obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary.
Percentage of obese population in 2010, Data source: OECD's iLibrary.
Modern drug ampoules
Nurses in Kokopo, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea
Postage stamp, New Zealand, 1933. Public health has been promoted – and depicted – in a wide variety of ways.
A lady washing her hands c. 1655

Nutrients help build and strengthen bones, muscles, and tendons and also regulate body processes (i.e., blood pressure).

Hypertension graphic

Hypertension and the brain

Hypertension graphic
Complications of hypertension
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS)
Blood brain barrier
CT scan of two lacunar infarctions. Moments after an ischemic stroke, lesions are established that can be detected.
CT scan of intracerebral hemorrhage
Beta-blockers

Hypertension is a condition characterized by an elevated blood pressure in which the long term consequences include cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, adrenal gland tumors, vision impairment, memory loss, metabolic syndrome, stroke and dementia.

The skeletal-muscle pump

Skeletal-muscle pump

Collection of skeletal muscles that aid the heart in the circulation of blood.

Collection of skeletal muscles that aid the heart in the circulation of blood.

The skeletal-muscle pump

It is postulated that this change in pressure may be great enough to draw blood from the arterial side to the venous side.

Representation of the arterial pressure waveform over one cardiac cycle. The notch in the curve is associated with closing of the aortic valve.

Mean arterial pressure

Representation of the arterial pressure waveform over one cardiac cycle. The notch in the curve is associated with closing of the aortic valve.
Arterial line

In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.