Blood sugar level

blood sugarblood glucoseblood glucose levelplasma glucoseblood glucose levelsglucoseblood sugar levelsglycemiaserum glucoseglucose level
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.wikipedia
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Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the concentration of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.
Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar.

Blood sugar regulation

glucose homeostasisblood glucose regulationblood sugar control
The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation.
Blood sugar regulation is the process by which the levels of blood sugar, primarily glucose, are maintained by the body within a narrow range.

Homeostasis

homeostaticequilibriumimmunomodulation
The body tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis.
Other variables include the pH of extracellular fluid, the concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium ions, as well as that of the blood sugar level, and these need to be regulated despite changes in the environment, diet, or level of activity.

Insulin

insulin geneINShuman insulin
Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.
Beta cells are sensitive to glucose concentrations, also known as blood sugar levels.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreaspancreatic development
Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.
As an endocrine gland, it functions mostly to regulate blood sugar levels, secreting the hormones insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide.

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugarhypoglycaemiahypoglycemic
A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is a fall in blood sugar to levels below normal.

Hyperglycemia

high blood sugarhyperglycaemiahyperglycemic
A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia.
This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl).

Glucose test

fasting blood glucosefasting plasma glucosefasting glucose
There are different methods of testing and measuring blood sugar levels.
Many types of glucose tests exist and they can be used to estimate blood sugar levels at a given time or, over a longer period of time, to obtain average levels or to see how fast body is able to normalize changed glucose levels.

Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Glucose is stored in skeletal muscle and liver cells in the form of glycogen; in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained at a constant level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle.
Approximately 4 grams of glucose are present in the blood of humans at all times; in fasted individuals, blood glucose is maintained constant at this level at the expense of glycogen stores in the liver and skeletal muscle.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Cellular glucose uptake is primarily regulated by insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas.
For instance, serum calcium concentration affects parathyroid hormone synthesis; blood sugar (serum glucose concentration) affects insulin synthesis; and because the outputs of the stomach and exocrine pancreas (the amounts of gastric juice and pancreatic juice) become the input of the small intestine, the small intestine secretes hormones to stimulate or inhibit the stomach and pancreas based on how busy it is.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
It is released with a diurnal cycle and its release is increased in response to stress and low blood-glucose concentration.

Anti-diabetic medication

antidiabeticantidiabetic druganti-diabetic drug
When diabetes is the cause, physicians typically recommend an anti-diabetic medication as treatment.
Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering the glucose level in the blood.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
In humans, a blood glucose level of four grams, or about a teaspoon, is critical for normal function in a number of tissues, and the human brain consumes approximately 60% of blood glucose in fasted, sedentary individuals.
In humans, blood glucose is the primary source of energy for most cells and is critical for normal function in a number of tissues, including the brain.

Glycated hemoglobin

HbA1chemoglobin A1cglycosylated hemoglobin
This method measures the level of glycated hemoglobin, which is representative of the average blood glucose levels over the last, approximately, 120 days.
It is measured primarily to determine the three-month average blood sugar level and can be used as a diagnostic test for diabetes mellitus and as an assessment test for glycemic control in people with diabetes.

Glycosuria

glucosuriaglycosuria, renalglucose in the urine
Urine glucose readings, however taken, are much less useful.
Glycosuria is nearly always caused by elevated blood glucose levels, most commonly due to untreated diabetes mellitus.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Despite widely variable intervals between meals or the occasional consumption of meals with a substantial carbohydrate load, human blood glucose levels tend to remain within the normal range.
They rank carbohydrate-rich foods based on the rapidity and magnitude of their effect on blood glucose levels.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
Part of the reason why this amount is so small is that, to maintain an influx of glucose into cells, enzymes modify glucose by adding phosphate or other groups to it.
For example, in the response to insulin, the phosphorylation of multiple enzymes, including glycogen synthase, helps control the synthesis or degradation of glycogen and allows the cell to respond to changes in blood sugar.

Medical laboratory

clinical laboratorylaboratory medicinelaboratory
More precise blood glucose measurements are performed in a medical laboratory, using hexokinase, glucose oxidase, or glucose dehydrogenase enzymes.

Reference ranges for blood tests

reference rangeblood valuesblood levels
Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation.

Gram per litre

mg/Lg/Lmg/dl
In the United States, Germany and other countries mass concentration is measured in mg/dL (milligrams per decilitre).
Blood sugar concentration is sometimes measured in milligrams per decilitre (mg/dL).

Insulinoma

beta tumor cells
Beta cells secrete insulin in response to increases in blood glucose.

Catecholamine

catecholaminescatecholamine synthesiscatecholamine systems
Some typical effects are increases in heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and a general reaction of the sympathetic nervous system.

Blood glucose monitoring

blood glucose monitorcontinuous glucose monitorblood glucose
Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia).