A report on Rhythm and bluesBlues and Jump blues

Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946
American blues singer Ma Rainey (1886–1939), the "Mother of the Blues"
Jordan in New York, July 1946
The habanera rhythm shown as tresillo (lower notes) with the backbeat (upper note)
A minor pentatonic scale;
Louis Jordan's Tympany Five
Fats Domino in 1956
Musicologist John Lomax (left) shaking hands with musician "Uncle" Rich Brown in Sumterville, Alabama
Lionel Hampton
Piano excerpt from the rumba boogie "Mardi Gras in New Orleans" (1949) by Professor Longhair. 2–3 claves are written above for rhythmic reference.
Sheet music from "Saint Louis Blues" (1914)
3–2 clave written in two measures in cut-time
Bessie Smith, an early blues singer, known for her powerful voice
Tresillo answered by the backbeat, the essence of clave in African American music
A typical boogie-woogie bass line
Bo Diddley's "Bo Diddley beat" is a clave-based motif.
John Lee Hooker
Ray Charles in 1971
Blues legend B.B. King with his guitar, "Lucille"
Ruth Brown was known as the "Queen of R&B"
Texas blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan, 1983
Della Reese
Italian singer Zucchero is credited as the "Father of Italian Blues", and is among the few European blues artists who still enjoy international success.
Sam Cooke
Eric Clapton performing at Hyde Park, London, in June 2008
Eric Burdon & the Animals (1964)
Duke Ellington straddled the big band and bebop genres. Ellington extensively used the blues form.
The music of Taj Mahal for the 1972 movie Sounder marked a revival of interest in acoustic blues.

Jump blues is an up-tempo style of blues, usually played by small groups and featuring horn instruments.

- Jump blues

It was popular in the 1940s and was a precursor of rhythm and blues and rock and roll.

- Jump blues

The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common.

- Blues

In the early 1950s, it was frequently applied to blues records.

- Rhythm and blues

He has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues.

- Rhythm and blues

In the 1940s, the jump blues style developed.

- Blues
Louis Jordan in New York City, c. undefined July 1946

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio, in the origins of rock and roll

Rock and roll

4 links

Genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

Sign commemorating the role of Alan Freed and Cleveland, Ohio, in the origins of rock and roll
Chuck Berry in 1957
Bill Haley and his Comets performing in the 1954 Universal International film Round Up of Rhythm
Elvis Presley in a promotion shot for Jailhouse Rock in 1957
Little Richard in 1957
Buddy Holly and his band, the Crickets.
Tommy Steele, one of the first British rock and rollers, performing in Stockholm in 1957
"There's No Romance in Rock and Roll" made the cover of True Life Romance in 1956

It originated from African-American music such as jazz, rhythm and blues, boogie woogie, gospel, as well as country music.

Particularly significant influences were jazz, blues, gospel, country, and folk.

In the same period, particularly on the West Coast and in the Midwest, the development of jump blues, with its guitar riffs, prominent beats and shouted lyrics, prefigured many later developments.

American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology

Jazz

4 links

American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie Blake made an early contribution to the genre's etymology
Albert Gleizes, 1915, Composition for "Jazz" from the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York
Ethel Waters sang "Stormy Weather" at the Cotton Club.
Al Jolson in 1929
Dance in Congo Square in the late 1700s, artist's conception by E. W. Kemble from a century later
In the late 18th-century painting The Old Plantation, African-Americans dance to banjo and percussion.
The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones
Scott Joplin in 1903
W. C. Handy at 19, 1892
The Bolden Band around 1905
Jelly Roll Morton, in Los Angeles, California, c. 1917 or 1918
The King & Carter Jazzing Orchestra photographed in Houston, Texas, January 1921
Louis Armstrong began his career in New Orleans and became one of jazz's most recognizable performers.
Benny Goodman (1943)
Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club (1943)
The "classic quintet": Charlie Parker, Tommy Potter, Miles Davis, Dizzy Gillespie, and Max Roach performing at Three Deuces in New York City. Photograph by William P. Gottlieb (August 1947), Library of Congress.
Machito (maracas) and his sister Graciella Grillo (claves)
Dizzy Gillespie, 1955
Mongo Santamaria (1969)
Art Blakey (1973)
John Coltrane, 1963
Peter Brötzmann is a key figure in European free jazz.
Naná Vasconcelos playing the Afro-Brazilian Berimbau
Randy Weston
C pentatonic scale beginning on the I (C pentatonic), IV (F pentatonic), and V (G pentatonic) steps of the scale.
V pentatonic scale over II–V–I chord progression
Fusion trumpeter Miles Davis in 1989
Wynton Marsalis
David Sanborn, 2008
John Zorn performing in 2006
Steve Coleman in Paris, July 2004

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime.

The mid-1950s saw the emergence of hard bop, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues to small groups and particularly to saxophone and piano.

An early 1940s style known as "jumping the blues" or jump blues used small combos, uptempo music and blues chord progressions, drawing on boogie-woogie from the 1930s.

Turner performing, 1973

Big Joe Turner

4 links

American singer from Kansas City, Missouri.

American singer from Kansas City, Missouri.

Turner performing, 1973
Turner performing in the 1955 film Rock 'n' Roll Revue

Eventually they were seen by the talent scout John Hammond in 1938, who invited them back to New York to appear in one of his From Spirituals to Swing concerts at Carnegie Hall, which were instrumental in introducing jazz and blues to a wider American audience.

During his career, Turner was part of the transition from big bands to jump blues to rhythm and blues to rock and roll.

Boogie-woogie

3 links

Boogie-woogie is a genre of blues music that became popular during the late 1920s, developed in African-American communities in the 1870s.

The genre had a significant influence on rhythm and blues and rock and roll.

The boogie-woogie fad lasted from the late 1930s into the early 1950s, and made a major contribution to the development of jump blues and ultimately to rock and roll, epitomized by Fats Domino, Little Richard and Jerry Lee Lewis.

The Banjo Lesson by Henry Ossawa Tanner, 1893

African-American music

2 links

Umbrella term covering a diverse range of music and musical genres largely developed by African Americans.

Umbrella term covering a diverse range of music and musical genres largely developed by African Americans.

The Banjo Lesson by Henry Ossawa Tanner, 1893
Congo Square African Drum 1819 Latrobe
Slave dance to banjo, 1780s
William Sidney Mount painted scenes of black and white American musicians. This 1856 painting depicts an African-American banjo player.
The Slayton Jubilee Singers entertain employees of the Old Trusty Incubator Factory, Clay Center, about 1910
Marilyn Horne and Henry Lewis in 1961, photo by Carl Van Vechten
Sister Rosetta Tharpe performing at Cafe Zanzibar
Lil Wayne is one of the top selling black American musicians in modern history. In 2008, his album sold one million in its first week.
Edward Ray at Capitol Records
50 Cent in 2006. 50 Cent was one of the most popular African-American rappers of the 2000s.
Beyoncé

Some of the most popular music types today, such as rock and roll, country, rock, funk, jazz, blues, rhythm, and rhythm and blues were created and influenced by African-American artists.

The term "rock and roll" had a strong sexual connotation in jump blues and R&B, but when DJ Alan Freed referred to rock and roll on mainstream radio in the mid 50s, "the sexual component had been dialled down enough that it simply became an acceptable term for dancing".

Jordan in New York City, 1946

Louis Jordan

2 links

American saxophonist, multi-instrumentalist, songwriter and bandleader who was popular from the late 1930s to the early 1950s.

American saxophonist, multi-instrumentalist, songwriter and bandleader who was popular from the late 1930s to the early 1950s.

Jordan in New York City, 1946
Louis Jordan's Tympany Five
Jordan in New York, July 1946, shortly after getting second billing to Glen Gray at the Paramount

Jordan began his career in big-band swing jazz in the 1930s, but he became known as one of the leading practitioners, innovators and popularizers of jump blues, a swinging, up-tempo, dance-oriented hybrid of jazz, blues and boogie-woogie.

With his dynamic Tympany Five bands, Jordan mapped out the main parameters of the classic R&B, urban blues and early rock-and-roll genres with a series of highly influential 78-rpm discs released by Decca Records.

Publicity photo of Walker, 1942

T-Bone Walker

1 links

Publicity photo of Walker, 1942
Walker at the American Folk Blues Festival in Hamburg, March 1972

Aaron Thibeaux "T-Bone" Walker (May 28, 1910 – March 16, 1975) was an American blues musician, composer, songwriter and bandleader, who was a pioneer and innovator of the jump blues, West Coast blues, and electric blues sounds.

Other notable songs he recorded during this period were "Bobby Sox Blues" (a number 3 R&B hit in 1947) and "West Side Baby" (number 8 on the R&B singles chart in 1948).