Bodhisattva

BodhisattvasBoddhisattvaBoddhisatvaBodhisattabosatsuBodhisattavaBodhisattva pathBosalBuddha-to-beBoddhisatvas
In Buddhism, a bodhisattva is any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood.wikipedia
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Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
In Buddhism, a bodhisattva is any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood.
Most Buddhist traditions share the goal of overcoming suffering and the cycle of death and rebirth, either by the attainment of Nirvana or through the path of Buddhahood.

Buddhahood

BuddhaBuddhasSamyaksambuddha
In Buddhism, a bodhisattva is any person who is on the path towards Buddhahood.
The goal of Mahayana's bodhisattva path is Samyaksambuddhahood, so that one may benefit all sentient beings by teaching them the path of cessation of dukkha.

Theravada

Theravada BuddhismTheravādaTheravada Buddhist
In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva (Pali: bodhisatta) refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has also received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so. According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas (and their counterparts such as the Chinese Āgamas) which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant.
The first records of Buddha images come from the reign of the King Vasabha (65–109 BCE), and after the 3rd century CE the historical record shows a growth of the worship of Buddha images as well as Bodhisattvas.

Sumedha

Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati
During this encounter, a previous incarnation of Gautama, variously named Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day become a Buddha.
Buddhist traditions describe that this takes place when Gotama Buddha is still a Buddha-to-be (bodhisatta, bodhisattva).

Bodhicitta

bodhichittaMind of Enlightenmentawakening mind
In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings.
A person who has a spontaneous realization or motivation of bodhicitta is called a bodhisattva.

Buddha (title)

BuddhaBuddhasBouddha
In the Early Buddhist schools as well as modern Theravada Buddhism, a bodhisattva (Pali: bodhisatta) refers to anyone who has made a resolution to become a Buddha and has also received a confirmation or prediction from a living Buddha that this will be so.
However, the title can also be used for others who have achieved enlightenment, such as the other human Buddhas who achieved enlightenment before Gautama, the five celestial Buddhas worshipped primarily by Vajrayana followers, and the bodhisattva named Maitreya, who will achieve enlightenment in the future and succeed Gautama Buddha as the supreme Buddha of the world.

Maitreya

Maitreya BuddhaMirokuMiroku Bosatsu
Because of this, it was and remains a common practice in Theravada to attempt to establish the necessary conditions to meet the future Buddha Maitreya and thus receive a prediction from him.
According to Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma.

Mahāsattva

Great BeingsMahasattvamahasattvas
247–249), who was renowned for his compassion, took vows for the welfare of the citizens, and was regarded as a mahāsatta (Sanskrit mahāsattva), an epithet used almost exclusively in Mahayana Buddhism.
A mahāsattva (literally "great being") is a great bodhisattva who has practiced Buddhism for a long time and reached a very high level on the path to awakening (bodhi).

Nikaya Buddhism

NikāyasmainstreamNikaya
The path is explained differently by the various Nikaya schools.
The Mahāsāṃghika nikāyas generally advocated the transcendental and supramundane nature of the buddhas and bodhisattvas, and the fallibility of arhats.

Mahāsāṃghika

MahasamghikaMahasanghikaMahasamghikas
The Mahāvastu of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins presents four stages of the bodhisattva path without giving specific time frames (though its said to take various asaṃkhyeya kalpas):
The Mahāsāṃghikas advocated the transcendental and supramundane nature of the buddhas and bodhisattvas, and the fallibility of arhats.

Mahāvastu

Mahavastu
The Mahāvastu of the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravādins presents four stages of the bodhisattva path without giving specific time frames (though its said to take various asaṃkhyeya kalpas):
Over half of the text is composed of Jātaka and Avadāna tales, accounts of the earlier lives of the Buddha and other bodhisattvas.

Dīpankara Buddha

Dipankara BuddhaDipankaraDīpankara
During this encounter, a previous incarnation of Gautama, variously named Sumedha, Megha, or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day become a Buddha. The oldest known story about how Gautama Buddha becomes a bodhisattva is the story of his encounter with the previous Buddha, Dīpankara.
He is generally depicted with two bodhisattvas, Manjusri and Vajrapani (common in Java) or Avalokiteśvara and Vajrapani (common in Sri Lanka); or with the Buddhas who come after him, Gautama and Maitreya.

Prajnaparamita

PrajñāpāramitāPerfection of Wisdomprajñaparamita
The Ratnagunasamcayagatha also says the bodhisattva should undertake ascetic practices (dhutanga), "wander freely without a home", practice the paramitas and train under a guru in order to perfect his meditation practice and realization of prajñaparamita.
Prajñāpāramitā refers to this perfected way of seeing the nature of reality, as well as to a particular body of sutras and to the personification of the concept in the Bodhisattva known as the "Great Mother" (Tibetan: Yum Chenmo).

Āgama (Buddhism)

ĀgamasĀgamaAgamas
According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas (and their counterparts such as the Chinese Āgamas) which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant.
Āsaṅga classifies the Mahāyāna sūtras as belonging to the Bodhisattvapiṭaka, which is designated as the collection of teachings for bodhisattvas.

Mahayana

Mahayana BuddhismMahāyānaMahayana Buddhist
In Mahayana Buddhism, a bodhisattva refers to anyone who has generated bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. 247–249), who was renowned for his compassion, took vows for the welfare of the citizens, and was regarded as a mahāsatta (Sanskrit mahāsattva), an epithet used almost exclusively in Mahayana Buddhism.
"Mahāyāna" also refers to the path of the Bodhisattva seeking complete enlightenment for the benefit of all sentient beings, also called "Bodhisattvayāna", or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle".

Ugraparipṛcchā Sūtra

UgraparipṛccaUgraparipṛccha Sūtra
Some of early depictions of the Bodhisattva path in texts such as the Ugraparipṛcchā Sūtra describe it as an arduous, difficult monastic path suited only for the few which is nevertheless the most glorious path one can take.
It contains positive references to both the path of the bodhisattva and the path of the arhat, the latter of which was denigrated as a lesser spiritual path in later Mahayana sutras.

Cariyapitaka

Cariyāpiṭaka
The Sri Lankan commentator Dhammapala in his commentary on the Cariyāpiṭaka, a text which focuses on the bodhisatta path, notes that to become a bodhisatta one must make a valid resolution in front of a living Buddha, which confirms that one is irreversible (anivattana) from the attainment of Buddhahood.
It is a short verse work that includes thirty-five accounts of the Buddha's former lives (similar to Jataka tales) when he as a bodhisattva exhibited behaviors known as "perfections," prerequisites to buddhahood.

Arhat

arahantarhatsArahants
According to the Theravāda monk Bhikkhu Bodhi, the bodhisattva path is not taught in the earliest strata of Buddhist texts such as the Pali Nikayas (and their counterparts such as the Chinese Āgamas) which instead focus on the ideal of the Arahant.
Mahayana Buddhist teachings urge followers to take up the path of a bodhisattva, and to not fall back to the level of arhats and śrāvakas.

Sarvastivada

SarvāstivādaSarvastivadinVaibhāṣika
The Sarvāstivāda school had similar models about how the Buddha Gautama became a bodhisattva.
samyaksaṃbuddha), and therefore they admitted the path of a bodhisattva as a valid one.

Bodhisattva vow

Bodhisattva vowsaspiredbodhisatta'' vow
Contemporary Mahāyāna Buddhism follows this model and encourages everyone to give rise to bodhicitta and ceremonially take bodhisattva vows.
One who has taken the vow is nominally known as a Bodhisattva.

Vessantara

Vessantara JatakaVessantara JātakaMedin Poya
This is seen in the story of Vessantara, an incarnation of Śākyamuni Buddha while he was still a bodhisattva, who commits the ultimate act of generosity by giving away his children to an evil man who mistreats them.
King Vessantara was the son of Sañjaya, king of Sivirattha, and was born in the capital city of Jatuttara as a bodhisattva.

Yogacarabhumi-sastra

Yogācārabhūmi-śāstraYogācārabhūmi ŚāstraYogācārabhūmi
In this Yogacara model, the bodhisattva definitely rejects and avoids the liberation of the śravaka and pratyekabuddha, described in Mahāyāna literature as either inferior or "Hina" (as in Asaṅga's fourth century Yogācārabhūmi) or as ultimately false or illusory (as in the Lotus Sūtra).
It is generally associated with the Indian Yogācāra school because it contains certain unique Yogācāra doctrines, like the eight consciousnesses and the ālaya-vijñāna. According to Ulrich Timme Kragh, "its overall objective seems to be to present a coherent structure of Buddhist yoga practice with the Mahāyāna path of the bodhisattva placed at the pinnacle of the system", but substantial parts also deal with non-Mahāyāna "mainstream" practices.

Samantabhadra

Fugen BosatsuFugenBohyeonbosal
Some bodhisattvas such as Samantabhadra are also said to have already attained buddhahood.
Samantabhadra (समन्तभद्र; lit. "Universal Worthy") is a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism associated with practice and meditation.

Asanga

AsaṅgaMuchakuAbhidharma-samuccaya
In this Yogacara model, the bodhisattva definitely rejects and avoids the liberation of the śravaka and pratyekabuddha, described in Mahāyāna literature as either inferior or "Hina" (as in Asaṅga's fourth century Yogācārabhūmi) or as ultimately false or illusory (as in the Lotus Sūtra).
Traditionally, he and his half-brother Vasubandhu are regarded as the major classical Indian Sanskrit exponents of Mahayana Abhidharma, Vijñanavada (awareness only) thought and Mahayana teachings on the bodhisattva path.

Madhyamaka

MadhyamikaMādhyamakaMādhyamika
The authors of the various Madhyamaka shastras (treatises) often presented the view of the ekayana.
The vast Prajñāpāramitā literature emphasizes the development of higher cognition in the context of the Bodhisattva path; thematically, its focus on the emptiness of all dharmas is closely related to the Madhyamaka approach.