Bodhisattva

A relief depicting Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Plaosan temple, 9th century Central Java, Indonesia
Probable early image of a bodhisattva (Bimaran casket, 50 CE).
Gandharan relief depicting the bodhisattva (future Gautama Buddha) taking a vow at the foot of Dipankara Buddha, Art Institute of Chicago.
Modern depiction of the bodhisattva resolution (praṇidhāna) in front of Dipankara.
6th century painting of Maitreya, Kizil Caves, Cave 224
Gilded bronze statue of Tara, Sri Lanka, 8th century CE.
Bronze statue of the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara. Sri Lanka, c. 750 CE.
An altar depicting Burmese Buddhist weizzas. In this esoteric tradition, weizzas consider themselves to be bodhisattvas.
Greco-Buddhist standing Maitreya (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Greco-Buddhist Vajrapāni (the protector of the Buddha) resembling Heracles, second-century.
Bengali Sculpture of Manjushri, the bodhisattva of wisdom, 11th century
Wood carving of Avalokiteśvara. Liao China, 907–1125
Twenty-five Bodhisattvas Descending from Heaven. Japanese painting, c. undefined1300
Bodhisattva Prajñaparamita, a female personification of the perfection of wisdom, Singhasari period, East Java, Indonesia, 13th century
Mural of bodhisattva Padmapani in Ajanta Caves. India, 5th century
Green Tara attended by White Tara and Bhrikuti, India, Madhya Pradesh, Sirpur, c. 8th century.
Tibetan painting of Vajrapani, 19th-century
Japanese statue of Kannon (Guanyin, a popular female form of Avalokiteshvara in East Asia)
Mural painting of Manjushri in tantric union with his consort, the bodhisattva Sarasvati (also considered to be a form of Tara).
Green Tara and her devotees, Folio from a Bengali manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā (Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines), MET.
Maitreya, 13th century, Kamakura period, Tokyo National Museum, Important Cultural Property of Japan.
Statue of Ksitigarbha, the background art depicts his pure land and attendant bodhisattvas. From a Buddhist temple in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Statue of Guanyin's 'thousand arms' form, the arms symbolize all the skillful means employed by Guanyin to help sentient beings.
Statue of Samantabhadra bodhisattva at Mount Emei
Standing bodhisattva. Gandhāra, 2nd–3rd century.
Standing bodhisattva. Gandhāra, 2nd–3rd century.
Bodhisattva Vajrapani. Mendut near Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia. Sailendran art c. 8th century.
The golden Srivijayan Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia c. 11th century.
Thousand-armed Bodhisattva, Sanjūsangen-dō, Japan. 13th century.
A rock carving of Avalokiteshvara, Weligama, Sri Lanka
Silver Manjushri, Sailendra, early 9th century Central Java, National Museum.
Bodhisattva Manjushri as Tikshna-Manjushri (Minjie Wenshu), China
Wooden gilded statue of Avalokiteśvara, Song Dynasty (960-1279)
Jizō Bosatsu, Japan
Bodhisattva painting at Dun Huang in the "1000 Buddha cave" (cave 17).
Manjushri, 17th–18th century China
Padmapani Lokeshvara, Nepal, 11th century
Standing Bodhisattva, probably Maitreya, Gandhara
Samantabhadra, Yulin Cave 3, Western Xia
Nyoirin Kannon, Japan, 1693
White Avalokiteshvara (Amoghapasha Lokeshvara), 14th century, Nepal.
Maitreya, Himalayan, 15th century
Padmapani, India, Gandharan period, 200s AD, schist
Gandharan sculpture, head of a bodhisattva
Vajrapani, Cambodia, 10th century
Lokesvara, Cambodia, 10-11th century
Lokeshvara, Bihar, Teladha Vihara
Avalokiteshvara, 18th century
Guanyin Statue, Nanshan Guanyin Park
Maitreya, Bihar, Gaya District, 11th century
Manjusri, Nepal, 15th century

Any person who is on the path towards bodhi ('awakening') or Buddhahood.

- Bodhisattva
A relief depicting Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Plaosan temple, 9th century Central Java, Indonesia

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Avalokiteśvara holding a lotus flower. Nālandā, Bihar, India, 9th century CE.

Avalokiteśvara

Avalokiteśvara holding a lotus flower. Nālandā, Bihar, India, 9th century CE.
Painting of Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva. Sanskrit Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra manuscript written in the Ranjana script. Nalanda, Bihar, India. Circa 700-1100 CE
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Avalokiteśvara / Padmapani, Ajanta Caves, India
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Shrine to the Thousand-Hand Guanyin (Qianshou Guanyin) and Eleven-Headed Guanyin (Shiyimian Guanyin) on Mount Putuo Guanyin Dharma Realm in Zhejiang, China
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Gandhāran statue of Avalokiteśvara, abhaya-mudrā. 3rd century CE.
Indian cave wall painting of Avalokiteśvara. Ajaṇṭā Caves, 6th century CE.
1000-armed Avalokiteśvara dated 13th - 15th century AD at Saspol cave (Gon-Nila-Phuk Cave Temples and Fort) in Ladakh, India
Torso of Avalokiteśvara from Sanchi in the Victoria and Albert Museum
Cambodian statue of Avalokiteśvara. Sandstone, 7th century CE.
Avalokiteśvara sandstone statue, late 7th century CE.
Padmapani holding a lotus. 8th-9th century Sailendran art, Plaosan temple, Java, Indonesia.
Eight-armed Avalokiteśvara, ca. 12th-13th century (Bàyon). The Walters Art Museum.
Avalokiteśvara from Bingin Jungut, Musi Rawas, South Sumatra. Srivijayan art (c. 8th-9th century CE)
The bronze torso Avalokiteshvara of Chaiya, 8th century CE Srivijayan art, Chaiya District, Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand.
The Privy Seal of King Ananda Mahidol of Thailand show a picture of a Bodhisattva, based on a Srivijayan sculpture of Avalokiteśvara Padmapani which was found at Chaiya District, Surat Thani Province.
The stone head of Avalokiteśvara, discovered in Aceh. Srivijaya, estimated 9th century.
Malaysian statue of Avalokiteśvara. Bidor, 8th-9th century CE.
Chinese statue of Avalokiteśvara looking out over the sea, c. 1025 CE.
Chinese hanging scroll depicting Shancai, Avalokiteśvara and Longnü, Yuan Dynasty.
Standing Kannon Bosatsu (Avalokitesvara), 12th century, Heian period, Tokyo National Museum, Japan.
Senju Kannon by Tankei, 13th century, Sanjūsangen-dō, Japan.
Nyoirin Kannon, 1275, Tokyo National Museum, Japan
Korean painting of Avalokiteśvara. Kagami Jinjya, Japan, 1310 CE.
Nepalese statue of Avalokiteśvara with six arms. 14th century CE.
Avalokiteśvara of One Thousand Arms, lacquered and gilded wood. Restored in 1656 CE. Bút Tháp Temple, Bắc Ninh Province, Vietnam
Tibetan statue of Avalokiteśvara with eleven faces.
Japanese painting of Avalokiteśvara meditating. 16th century CE.
Tang dynasty (896 AD) carved stone statue of Qianshou Guanyin in Shengshui Temple (內江聖水寺) in Neijiang, Sichuan, China
The world tallest octagonal pavilion to shelter the Guanyin statue in Kek Lok Si in Air Itam, Penang, Malaysia.
Esoteric Cundī form of Avalokiteśvara with eighteen arms in Lingyin Temple in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
Thousand-armed Avalokiteśvara bronze statue from Tibet, circa 1750. Birmingham Museum of Art
Mongolian statue of Avalokiteśvara (Migjid Janraisig). Tallest indoor statue in the world, 26.5-meter-high, 1996 rebuilt, (1913)
Statue of Ruyilun Guanyin (Cintamanicakra) in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum in Chinatown, Singapore.
Guanyin, Chinese Ming Dynasty, Guimet Museum
Statue of Avalokitesvara (Guanyin) in Daan Park, Taipei, Taiwan
Statue of Avalokiteśvara, date unknown, bronze and gold
Bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara from the Museum of Vietnamese History
Chinese Yuan/Ming dynasty wood carving of Avalokitesvara (Guanyin) seated in a relaxing position
Statue of Chenrezig, Pelling, Sikkim, India
Qianshou Guanyin at Cham Shan Temple in Hong Kong, China
Qianshou Guanyin. Guanyin women's vihara, Anhui, China
Shrine to a statue of Shiyimian Guanyin in the Drum Tower of Qita Temple (七塔寺) in Yingzhou, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China
Statue of Shiyimian Guanyin flanked by two attendant bodhisattvas in Huayan Temple (華嚴寺); Datong, Shanxi, China
Statue of Shiyimian Guanyin in Bukenqu Guanyin Yard (不肯去觀音院) in Putuoshan, Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, China
Statue of Shiyimian Guanyin in Ten Thousand Buddhas Monastery (萬佛寺) in Pai Tau Village, Sha Tin, Hong Kong
Wooden statue of thousand-armed and thousand-eyed Avalokiteshvara at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Ukiah, California.

In Buddhism, Avalokiteśvara ( Sanskrit: अवलोकितेश्वर ) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas.

Mañjuśrī Pala Dynasty, India, 9th century CE.

Manjushri

Mañjuśrī Pala Dynasty, India, 9th century CE.
Manjushri statue. Lhalung Gompa, Spiti Valley, India
Bodhisattva Monju (Manjushri), Kamakura period, Tokyo National Museum, Japan.
A painting of the Buddhist manjusri from the Yulin Caves of Gansu, China, from the Tangut-led Western Xia dynasty
Mañjuśrī figure brandishing sword of wisdom in Nepal
Palm leaf manuscript painting of Mañjuśrī. Nalanda, Bihar, India
Silver figure of Mañjuśrī holding a long-stemmed lotus. Central Java, Indonesia
Blanc de Chine figure of Mañjuśrī holding a ruyi scepter. China, 17th century
Mañjuśrī on lion with cintamani. Quan Âm Pagoda, Ho Chi Minh City
Mañjuśrī crossing the sea. Japan
Manjushri at Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum, Singapore
Bodhisattva Manjushri seated in lalitasana, from China, Jin Dynasty, 12th century CE. British Museum
thumb|Drawing of Mañjuśrī, Bodhisattva of Wisdom

Mañjuśrī (Sanskrit: मञ्जुश्री; Chinese: 文殊) is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā (wisdom) in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (circa 500 BCE) – modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan

Buddhism

Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on a series of original teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha.

Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on a series of original teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha.

Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (circa 500 BCE) – modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan
The gilded "Emaciated Buddha statue" in an Ubosoth in Bangkok representing the stage of his asceticism
Enlightenment of Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nd to early 3rd century CE, Gandhara.
The Buddha teaching the Four Noble Truths. Sanskrit manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India.
Traditional Tibetan Buddhist Thangka depicting the Wheel of Life with its six realms
Ramabhar Stupa in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India is regionally believed to be Buddha's cremation site.
An aniconic depiction of the Buddha's spiritual liberation (moksha) or awakening (bodhi), at Sanchi. The Buddha is not depicted, only symbolized by the Bodhi tree and the empty seat.
Dharma Wheel and triratna symbols from Sanchi Stupa number 2.
Buddhist monks and nuns praying in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple of Singapore
A depiction of Siddhartha Gautama in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara. After making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood, he becomes a "bodhisattva".
Bodhisattva Maitreya, Gandhara (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Sermon in the Deer Park depicted at Wat Chedi Liam, near Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand.
Buddhist monks collect alms in Si Phan Don, Laos. Giving is a key virtue in Buddhism.
An ordination ceremony at Wat Yannawa in Bangkok. The Vinaya codes regulate the various sangha acts, including ordination.
Living at the root of a tree (trukkhamulik'anga) is one of the dhutaṅgas, a series of optional ascetic practices for Buddhist monastics.
Kōdō Sawaki practicing Zazen ("sitting dhyana")
Seated Buddha, Gal Viharaya, Polonnawura, Sri Lanka.
Kamakura Daibutsu, Kōtoku-in, Kamakura, Japan.
Statue of Buddha in Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Phitsanulok, Thailand
An 18th century Mongolian miniature which depicts the generation of the Vairocana Mandala
A section of the Northern wall mural at the Lukhang Temple depicting tummo, the three channels (nadis) and phowa
Monks debating at Sera Monastery, Tibet
Tibetan Buddhist prostration practice at Jokhang, Tibet.
Vegetarian meal at Buddhist temple. East Asian Buddhism tends to promote vegetarianism.
A depiction of the supposed First Buddhist council at Rajgir. Communal recitation was one of the original ways of transmitting and preserving Early Buddhist texts.
Gandhara birchbark scroll fragments (c. 1st century) from British Library Collection
The Tripiṭaka Koreana in South Korea, an edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon carved and preserved in over 81,000 wood printing blocks
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.
Mahākāśyapa meets an Ājīvika ascetic, one of the common Śramaṇa groups in ancient India
Ajanta Caves, Cave 10, a first period type chaitya worship hall with stupa but no idols.
Sanchi Stupa No. 3, near Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Map of the Buddhist missions during the reign of Ashoka according to the Edicts of Ashoka.
Extent of Buddhism and trade routes in the 1st century CE.
Buddhist expansion throughout Asia
A Buddhist triad depicting, left to right, a Kushan, the future buddha Maitreya, Gautama Buddha, the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, and a monk. Second–third century. Guimet Museum
Site of Nalanda University, a great center of Mahāyāna thought
Vajrayana adopted deities such as Bhairava, known as Yamantaka in Tibetan Buddhism.
Angkor Thom build by Khmer King Jayavarman VII (c. 1120–1218).
Distribution of major Buddhist traditions
Buddhists of various traditions, Yeunten Ling Tibetan Institute
Monastics and white clad laypersons celebrate Vesak, Vipassakna Dhaurak, Cambodia
Chinese Buddhist monks performing a formal ceremony in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
Tibetan Buddhists practicing Chöd with various ritual implements, such as the Damaru drum, hand-bell, and Kangling (thighbone trumpet).
Ruins of a temple at the Erdene Zuu Monastery complex in Mongolia.
Buryat Buddhist monk in Siberia
1893 World Parliament of Religions in Chicago
Interior of the Thai Buddhist wat in Nukari, Nurmijärvi, Finland
Percentage of Buddhists by country, according to the Pew Research Center, as of 2010
A painting by G. B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing a scene of Borobudur, the largest Buddhist temple in the world.
Frontispiece of the Chinese Diamond Sūtra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world

Most Buddhist traditions emphasize transcending the individual self through the attainment of Nirvana or by following the path of Buddhahood, ending the cycle of death and rebirth.

Statue of Maitreya in his Deva form (before coming down to Earth to become the next Buddha)from Thailand

Maitreya

Regarded as the future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology.

Regarded as the future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology.

Statue of Maitreya in his Deva form (before coming down to Earth to become the next Buddha)from Thailand
Eight-armed male deity (Maitreya). Provenance Vat Ampil Tok, Kg. Chhnang. 10th century. Bronze with dark patina. Green traces on the feet. H. 75 cm. Inv. 2024. National Museum of Cambodia. Phnom Penh.
A statue of the bodhisattva Maitreya, at Kōryū-ji
Maitreya, 13th century, Kamakura period, Tokyo National Museum, Important Cultural Property of Japan.
Maitreya - 33 metre symbol of peace facing Pakistan, Nubra Valley, India
Statue of Maitreya Buddha in Patan Museum, Kathmandu, Nepal
Close-up of a statue depicting Maitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh, India. Depictions of Maitreya vary among Buddhist sects.
Seated stone-carved Maitreya, Leshan Giant Buddha in Sichuan, China
Maitreya (water bottle on left thigh), art of Mathura, second century CE
A 9th-century Srivijayan art bronze Maitreya from South Sumatra, a stupa adorns his crown
The future Buddha Maitreya, Gandhara, 3rd century CE
Sitting Maitreya (holding kumbha), Gandhara, 3rd century CE
A statue of Maitreya Buddha inside Trikal Maitreya Buddha Vihara (Jamchen Lhakhang Monastery) at Bouddhanath premises, Kathmandu, Nepal
Seated Maitreya, Korean, 4-5th century CE. Guimet Museum
Seated Maitreya in meditation, Korean, 6-7th century CE.
The monk Budai as an incarnation of Maitreya
Maitreya and disciples in budai form, as depicted at the Feilai Feng grottos near Lingyin Temple in Hangzhou, China
Monumental statue of Maitreya at Bingling Temple, China
Statue of the Tiger Subduing arhat, believed to be an incarnation of Maitreya
Statue of Maitreya of Gandhara, now in Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

According to Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who is prophesied to appear on Earth, achieve complete Enlightenment, and teach the Dharma.

An illustration in a manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra from Nalanda, depicting the bodhisattva Maitreya, an important figure in Mahāyāna.

Bodhicitta

Mind (citta) that is aimed at awakening (bodhi), with wisdom and compassion for the benefit of all sentient beings.

Mind (citta) that is aimed at awakening (bodhi), with wisdom and compassion for the benefit of all sentient beings.

An illustration in a manuscript of the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra from Nalanda, depicting the bodhisattva Maitreya, an important figure in Mahāyāna.

Bodhicitta is the defining quality of the Mahayana bodhisattva (a being striving towards Buddhahood) and the act of giving rise to bodhicitta (bodhicittotpāda) is what makes a bodhisattva a bodhisattva.

Prajñāpāramitā Devi, a personification of Transcendent Wisdom, Folio from a Tibetan 100,000 line Prajñāpāramitā manuscript.

Prajnaparamita

Prajñāpāramitā (𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀚𑁆𑀜𑀸𑀧𑀸𑀭𑀫𑀺𑀢𑀸) means "the Perfection of Wisdom" or "Transcendental Knowledge" in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

Prajñāpāramitā (𑀧𑁆𑀭𑀚𑁆𑀜𑀸𑀧𑀸𑀭𑀫𑀺𑀢𑀸) means "the Perfection of Wisdom" or "Transcendental Knowledge" in Mahāyāna Buddhism.

Prajñāpāramitā Devi, a personification of Transcendent Wisdom, Folio from a Tibetan 100,000 line Prajñāpāramitā manuscript.
Prajñāpāramitā personified. From the, a Sanskrit Manuscript of the 8000 line PP sutra, Nalanda, Bihar, India. Circa 700-1100 CE.
Prajñāpāramitā illustrated manuscript cover, circa 15th century
Illustration from a 100000 line PP sutra manuscript
The world's earliest printed book is a Chinese translation of the Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra (Vajra Cutter Sutra) from Dunhuang (circa 868 CE).
A Tibetan illustration of Subhuti (Tib. Rabjor), a major character in the Prajñāpāramitā literature, who is proclaimed as the foremost "dweller in non-conflict" (araṇavihārīnaṃ) and "of those worthy of offering" (dakkhiṇeyyānaṃ).
Gandharan depiction of the Bodhisattva (the future Buddha Shakyamuni) prostrating at the feet of the past Buddha Dipankara
Avalokiteśvara. manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India
Illustration of Bodhisattva Sadāprarudita (Ever weeping), a character in the Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra Avadana section, which is used by the Buddha as an exemplar of those who seek Prajñāpāramitā
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A Tibetan painting with a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra at the center of the mandala
Manuscript of the Perfection of Wisdom in 8000 lines
Illustrated frontispiece to the Great Perfection of Wisdom Sutra, Japan, Heian period, late 12th century, handscroll, gold on blue paper, Honolulu Museum of Art
Tibetan prajñāpāramitā manuscript depicting Sakyamuni Buddha and Prajñāpāramitā devi, 13th century
Prajñāpāramitā, Cambodia, Bayon style, ca. 1200, Sandstone
Prajñāpāramitā, Tibet, 15th century, gilt bronze, Berkeley Art Museum

Its practice and understanding are taken to be indispensable elements of the Bodhisattva path.

A bodhisattva benefitting sentient beings. Palm-leaf manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India

Pāramitā

Buddhist term often translated as "perfection".

Buddhist term often translated as "perfection".

A bodhisattva benefitting sentient beings. Palm-leaf manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India

Theravada commentator Dhammapala describes them as noble qualities usually associated with bodhisattas.

One child showing compassion for another child.

Karuṇā

Generally translated as compassion or mercy and sometimes as self-compassion or spiritual longing.

Generally translated as compassion or mercy and sometimes as self-compassion or spiritual longing.

One child showing compassion for another child.

For Mahāyāna Buddhists, is a co-requisite for becoming a Bodhisattva.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

Upaya

Term used in Buddhism to refer to an aspect of guidance along the Buddhist paths to liberation where a conscious, voluntary action " is driven by an incomplete reasoning" about its direction.

Term used in Buddhism to refer to an aspect of guidance along the Buddhist paths to liberation where a conscious, voluntary action " is driven by an incomplete reasoning" about its direction.

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.

The concept of skillfulness is prominent in Mahayana Buddhism with regards to the actions of a bodhisattva.

Gautama Buddha statue and 500 arhats at the courtyard of Shanyuan Temple (善緣寺), Fushun, Liaoning province, China.

Arhat

Arhat or arahant (Pali: अरहन्त) is one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence and has achieved nirvana.

Arhat or arahant (Pali: अरहन्त) is one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence and has achieved nirvana.

Gautama Buddha statue and 500 arhats at the courtyard of Shanyuan Temple (善緣寺), Fushun, Liaoning province, China.
Gohyaku rakan - five hundred statues depicting arhats, at the Chōkei temple in Toyama
Seated Luohan from Yixian, around 1000, one of a famous Group of glazed pottery luohans from Yixian

Mahayana Buddhist teachings urge followers to take up the path of a bodhisattva, and to not fall back to the level of arhats and śrāvakas.