Body mass index

BMIbody mass index (BMI)body-mass indexnormal body weightB'''ody-massBMI calculatorBMI measurementsBMI TableBMI-for-ageBMIs
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.wikipedia
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Human body weight

body massbody weightweight
The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is universally expressed in units of kg/m 2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres. The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 edition of the Journal of Chronic Diseases by Ancel Keys and others.
Other methods used in estimating the ideal body weight are body mass index and the Hamwi method.

Underweight

thinnessskinnybeing underweight
For such individuals, the value recommendations are as follows: a BMI from 18.5 up to 25 kg/m 2 may indicate optimal weight, a BMI lower than 18.5 suggests the person is underweight, a number from 25 up to 30 may indicate the person is overweight, and a number from 30 upwards suggests the person is obese.
Underweight people have a body mass index (BMI) of under 18.5 or a weight 15% to 20% below that normal for their age and height group.

Adolphe Quetelet

QueteletQuetelet, AdolpheLambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet
Adolphe Quetelet, a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician and sociologist, devised the basis of the BMI between 1830 and 1850 as he developed what he called "social physics".
He founded the science of Anthropometry and developed the body mass index scale, originally called the Quetelet Index.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
For such individuals, the value recommendations are as follows: a BMI from 18.5 up to 25 kg/m 2 may indicate optimal weight, a BMI lower than 18.5 suggests the person is underweight, a number from 25 up to 30 may indicate the person is overweight, and a number from 30 upwards suggests the person is obese.
People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25 kg/m2 is defined as overweight.

Overweight

excess body weightexcess weightheavy-set
For such individuals, the value recommendations are as follows: a BMI from 18.5 up to 25 kg/m 2 may indicate optimal weight, a BMI lower than 18.5 suggests the person is underweight, a number from 25 up to 30 may indicate the person is overweight, and a number from 30 upwards suggests the person is obese.
The degree to which a person is overweight is generally described by the body mass index (BMI).

Anorexia nervosa

anorexiaanorexicanorexics
In the United States, BMI is also used as a measure of underweight, owing to advocacy on behalf of those with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
The severity of disease is based on body mass index (BMI) in adults with mild disease having a BMI of greater than 17, moderate a BMI of 16 to 17, severe a BMI of 15 to 16, and extreme a BMI less than 15. In children a BMI for age percentile of less than the 5th percentile is often used.

Diabetes mellitus

diabetesdiabeticdiabetics
In Singapore, the BMI cut-off figures were revised in 2005, motivated by studies showing that many Asian populations, including Singaporeans, have higher proportion of body fat and increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, compared with Caucasians at the same BMI.
A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 DM, including obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than 30), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.

Diabetes mellitus type 2

type 2 diabetestype II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitus
Commonly accepted BMI ranges are underweight: under 18.5 kg/m 2, normal weight: 18.5 to 25, overweight: 25 to 30, obese: over 30. People of Asian descent have different associations between BMI, percentage of body fat, and health risks than those of European descent, with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease at BMIs lower than the WHO cut-off point for overweight, 25 kg/m 2, although the cut-off for observed risk varies among different Asian populations. High BMI is associated with type 2 diabetes only in persons with high serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.
Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a body mass index of greater than 25), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.

Ancel Keys

Dr. Ancel Keys
The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 edition of the Journal of Chronic Diseases by Ancel Keys and others.
In a 1972 article, Keys and his coauthors promoted Adolphe Quetelet's body mass index (BMI) as the best of various indices of obesity, which the U.S. National Institutes of Health then popularized in 1985.

Classification of obesity

Body Volume Indexbody mass indexBVI
For example, bodybuilder and eight-time Mr. Olympia Ronnie Coleman would be considered morbidly obese based on his BMI of 41.8.
Relative weight and body mass index (BMI) are nearly identical and are reasonable estimates of body fatness as measured by percentage body fat.

Body fat percentage

body fatfat masspercentage body fat
Using body fat percentages (BF%), however, BF-defined obesity was found in 50% of men and 62% of women.
The widely used body mass index (BMI) provides a measure that allows the comparison of the adiposity of individuals of different heights and weights.

Body composition

fat free massbody composition monitorsfat-free mass
BMI was designed to be used as a simple means of classifying average sedentary (physically inactive) populations, with an average body composition.
Body mass index

Gallbladder disease

gallbladder
Gallbladder disease
A prospective study in 1994 noted that body mass index remains the strongest predictor of symptomatic gallstones among young women.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Hypertension
maintain normal body weight for adults (e.g. body mass index 20–25 kg/m 2 )

List of countries by body mass index

countries listed by mean body mass index dataData released by the World Health Organisationmean body mass index (BMI)
List of countries by Body Mass Index (BMI)
This page serves as a partial list of countries by adult mean body weight and incidence of obese and overweight populations as calculated by body mass index (BMI).

Waist–hip ratio

waist-hip ratiowaist-to-hip ratiowaist to hip ratio
A 2011 study that followed 60,000 participants for up to 13 years found that waist–hip ratio was a better predictor of ischaemic heart disease mortality.
The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a body mass index (BMI) above 30.0.

Corpulence index

Ponderal Index
In comparison, the Ponderal index is based on the natural scaling of mass with the third power of the height.
It was first proposed in 1921 as the "Corpulence measure" by Swiss physician Fritz Rohrer and hence is also known as Rohrer's Index. It is similar to the body mass index, but the mass is normalized with the third power of body height rather than the second power.

Lloyd N. Trefethen

Nick TrefethenTrefethen, Lloyd N.Lloyd Nicholas Trefethen
The mathematician Prof Nick Trefethen, who observed this said, “BMI divides the weight by too large a number for short people and too small a number for tall people.
In 2013 he proposed a new formula to calculate the BMI of a person:

Waist-to-height ratio

waist-to-height ratio WHtR
A better measure was found to be the waist-to-height ratio.
A 2010 study that followed 11,000 subjects for up to eight years concluded that WHtR is a much better measure of the risk of heart attack, stroke or death than the more widely used body mass index.

Obesity paradox

reverse epidemiologyobesity survival paradox
Obesity paradox
It further postulates that normal to low body mass index or normal values of cholesterol may be detrimental and associated with higher mortality in asymptomatic people.

Relative Fat Mass

Relative Fat Mass (RFM)
RFM is a simple anthropometric procedure that is claimed to be more convenient than body fat percentage and more accurate than the traditional body mass index (BMI).

Gamma-glutamyltransferase

gamma-glutamyl transferaseGGTgamma glutamyl transferase
High BMI is associated with type 2 diabetes only in persons with high serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.
High body mass index is associated with type 2 diabetes only in persons with high serum GGT.

Body Shape Index

A Body Shape Index (ABSI)
Data on 11,808 subjects from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999–2004, showed that SBSI outperformed BMI, waist circumference, and A Body Shape Index (ABSI), an alternative to BMI.
The inclusion of the latter is believed to make the BSI a better indicator of the health risks from excess weight than the standard Body Mass Index.

Mass

inertial massgravitational massweight
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

Mass versus weight

weightdistinctionhistorical conflation of mass and weight
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.