A report on Boethius

Boethius teaching his students
(initial in a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy)
Boethius imprisoned, from a 1385 manuscript of the Consolation.
Gravestone of Boethius, 6th century, Pavia, Musei Civici.
Narius Manilas Boethius, the father of Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius.
Lady Philosophy and Boethius from the Consolation, (Ghent, 1485)
Boethius, Arithmetica Geometrica Musica (1492 first printed edition, from Hans Adler Collection)
The Tomb of Boethius in San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, Pavia.
Dialectica, 1547

Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, historian and philosopher of the early 6th century.

- Boethius
Boethius teaching his students
(initial in a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation of Philosophy)

43 related topics with Alpha

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From a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation: Miniatures of Boethius teaching and in prison

On the Consolation of Philosophy

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From a 1385 Italian manuscript of the Consolation: Miniatures of Boethius teaching and in prison
Lady Fortune with the Wheel of Fortune in a medieval manuscript of a work by Boccaccio; The Consolation of Philosophy was responsible for the popularity of the goddess of Fortune and the wheel of fortune in the Middle Ages

On the Consolation of Philosophy (De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophical work by the Roman statesman Boethius, written in 523 AD. It has been described as the single most important and influential work in the West on Medieval and early Renaissance Christianity, as well as the last great Western work of the Classical Period.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle

Aristotle

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Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Roman copy in marble of a Greek bronze bust of Aristotle by Lysippos, c. 330 BC, with modern alabaster mantle
School of Aristotle in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece
Roman copy of 1st or 2nd century from original bronze by Lysippos. Louvre Museum
Plato (left) and Aristotle in Raphael's 1509 fresco, The School of Athens. Aristotle holds his Nicomachean Ethics and gestures to the earth, representing his view in immanent realism, whilst Plato gestures to the heavens, indicating his Theory of Forms, and holds his Timaeus.
Plato's forms exist as universals, like the ideal form of an apple. For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing (hylomorphism).
Aristotle argued that a capability like playing the flute could be acquired – the potential made actual – by learning.
The four classical elements (fire, air, water, earth) of Empedocles and Aristotle illustrated with a burning log. The log releases all four elements as it is destroyed.
Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: in the case of a table, the wood used (material cause), its design (formal cause), the tools and techniques used (efficient cause), and its decorative or practical purpose (final cause).
Aristotle noted that the ground level of the Aeolian islands changed before a volcanic eruption.
Among many pioneering zoological observations, Aristotle described the reproductive hectocotyl arm of the octopus (bottom left).
Aristotle inferred growth laws from his observations on animals, including that brood size decreases with body mass, whereas gestation period increases. He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: data are shown for mouse and elephant.
Aristotle recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta (the yolk sac), like a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest.
Aristotle proposed a three-part structure for souls of plants, animals, and humans, making humans unique in having all three types of soul.
Senses, perception, memory, dreams, action in Aristotle's psychology. Impressions are stored in the sensorium (the heart), linked by his laws of association (similarity, contrast, and contiguity).
Aristotle's classifications of political constitutions
The Blind Oedipus Commending his Children to the Gods (1784) by Bénigne Gagneraux. In his Poetics, Aristotle uses the tragedy Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles as an example of how the perfect tragedy should be structured, with a generally good protagonist who starts the play prosperous, but loses everything through some hamartia (fault).
Frontispiece to a 1644 version of Theophrastus's Historia Plantarum, originally written around 300 BC
Islamic portrayal of Aristotle, c. 1220
Woodcut of Aristotle ridden by Phyllis by Hans Baldung, 1515
William Harvey's De Motu Cordis, 1628, showed that the blood circulated, contrary to classical era thinking.
"That most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle tutoring the future conqueror Alexander". Illustration by, 1866
First page of a 1566 edition of the Nicomachean Ethics in Greek and Latin
Nuremberg Chronicle anachronistically shows Aristotle in a medieval scholar's clothing. Ink and watercolour on paper, 1493
Aristotle by Justus van Gent. Oil on panel, c. 1476
Phyllis and Aristotle by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Oil on panel, 1530
Aristotle by Paolo Veronese, Biblioteka Marciana. Oil on canvas, 1560s
Aristotle and Campaspe,{{efn-ua | Compare the medieval tale of Phyllis and Alexander above.}} Alessandro Turchi (attrib.) Oil on canvas, 1713
Aristotle by Jusepe de Ribera. Oil on canvas, 1637
Aristotle with a Bust of Homer by Rembrandt. Oil on canvas, 1653
Aristotle by Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder. Oil on canvas, by 1813
Aristotle by Francesco Hayez. Oil on canvas, 1811
Roman copy of 117-138 AD of Greek original. Palermo Regional Archeology Museum
Relief of Aristotle and Plato by Luca della Robbia, Florence Cathedral, 1437–1439
Stone statue in niche, Gladstone's Library, Hawarden, Wales, 1899
Bronze statue, University of Freiburg, Germany, 1915

With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West, Aristotle was practically unknown there from c. AD 600 to c. 1100 except through the Latin translation of the Organon made by Boethius.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

Middle Ages

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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

c. 585), and Boethius (d.

An altarpiece in Ascoli Piceno, Italy,
by Carlo Crivelli (15th century)

Thomas Aquinas

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Italian Dominican friar and priest, who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism; he is known within the scholastic tradition as the Doctor Angelicus, the Doctor Communis, and the Doctor Universalis.

Italian Dominican friar and priest, who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism; he is known within the scholastic tradition as the Doctor Angelicus, the Doctor Communis, and the Doctor Universalis.

An altarpiece in Ascoli Piceno, Italy,
by Carlo Crivelli (15th century)
The Castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano
Thomas is girded by angels with a mystical belt of purity after his proof of chastity. Painting by Diego Velázquez.
Triumph of St Thomas Aquinas, "Doctor Communis", between Plato and Aristotle, Benozzo Gozzoli, 1471. Louvre, Paris.
Icon of the crucifixion speaking to Thomas Aquinas is depicted on this stained glass window in Saint Patrick Church (Columbus, Ohio).
Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas, "Doctor Angelicus", with saints and angels, Andrea di Bonaiuto, 1366. Basilica of Santa Maria Novella, fresco.
The remains of Thomas Aquinas are buried in the Church of the Jacobins in Toulouse.
St. Thomas Aquinas and the Pope
Detail of The Apotheosis of Saint Thomas Aquinas by Francisco de Zurbarán, 1631
Saint Thomas Aquinas by Luis Muñoz Lafuente
Super libros de generatione et corruptione
Super Physicam Aristotelis, 1595
Thomas Aquinas by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, 1650
17th-century sculpture of Thomas Aquinas
Portrait of St. Thomas by Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra, c. 1649
A stained glass window of Thomas Aquinas in St. Joseph's Catholic Church (Central City, Kentucky)

During his tenure from 1256 to 1259, Thomas wrote numerous works, including: Questiones disputatae de veritate (Disputed Questions on Truth), a collection of twenty-nine disputed questions on aspects of faith and the human condition prepared for the public university debates he presided over on Lent and Advent; Quaestiones quodlibetales (Quodlibetal Questions), a collection of his responses to questions posed to him by the academic audience; and both Expositio super librum Boethii De trinitate (Commentary on Boethius's De trinitate) and Expositio super librum Boethii De hebdomadibus (Commentary on Boethius's De hebdomadibus), commentaries on the works of 6th-century Roman philosopher Boethius.

The Ostrogothic Kingdom at its greatest extent.

Ostrogothic Kingdom

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Established by the Germanic Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.

Established by the Germanic Ostrogoths in Italy and neighbouring areas from 493 to 553.

The Ostrogothic Kingdom at its greatest extent.
The Palace of Theodoric, as depicted on the walls of St. Apollinare Nuovo. The figures between the columns, representing Theodoric and his court, were removed after the East Roman conquest.
The Ostrogothic Kingdom at its greatest extent.

This resulted in the arrest and execution of the magister officiorum Boethius and his father-in-law, Symmachus, in 524.

Portrait of Johann Jakob Brucker, whose six volume work Historia critica philosophiae (1742–1767) cemented the division between ancient Platonism, middle Platonism and neoplatonism.

Neoplatonism

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Philosophical and religious system, beginning with the work of Plotinus in c. 245 AD, that analyzes and teaches interpretations of the philosophy and theology of Plato, and which extended the interpretations of Plato that middle Platonists developed from 80 BC to 220 AD. The English term "neoplatonism", or "Neo-Platonism", or "Neoplatonism" comes from 18th- and 19th-century Germanic scholars who wanted to systematize history into nameable periods.

Philosophical and religious system, beginning with the work of Plotinus in c. 245 AD, that analyzes and teaches interpretations of the philosophy and theology of Plato, and which extended the interpretations of Plato that middle Platonists developed from 80 BC to 220 AD. The English term "neoplatonism", or "Neo-Platonism", or "Neoplatonism" comes from 18th- and 19th-century Germanic scholars who wanted to systematize history into nameable periods.

Portrait of Johann Jakob Brucker, whose six volume work Historia critica philosophiae (1742–1767) cemented the division between ancient Platonism, middle Platonism and neoplatonism.
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A 4th to 6th century AD lecture hall in the archaeological site Kom El Deka in Alexandria. The neoplatonic school of Alexandria was active between the 4th and 6th centuries AD.
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Modern day Viterbo, showing the 13th century Palazzo dei Papi (Palace of the Popes) that was completed around the same time the Catholic bishop William of Moerbeke and the Dominican friar and priest Thomas Aquinas were working in the city in 1268 AD.
Cornelia de Vogel, whose significant interpretation of Plato's dialogue The Sophist, showed the close connection between fundamental doctrines of Plato and neoplatonism.
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Modern day Villa Medici at Careggi where the 15th century Catholic priest Marsilio Ficino and his circle of scholars translated works by Plato and the neoplatonists Plotinus and Proclus between 1462 and 1499.
The beginning of a Latin translation of Pseudo-Dionysius' work Ecclesiastical Hierarchy from a manuscript in the Vatican Library. The neoplatonic theology of Proclus is a foundation to Pseudo-Dionysius' works on Christian theology written between 485 AD and 530 AD, now called Corpus Dionysiacum Areopagiticum (CDA).
A 12th or 13th century depiction of Michael Psellos with his student, the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas, located in the Pantokratoros Monastery. Psellos is a key figure both in the history of Byzantine philosophy and in the reception of neoplatonic theology and philosophy in Constantinople.
A 1975 Egyptian postage stamp depicting the Islamic philosopher al-Kindī who with a circle of scholars translated neoplatonic works by Plotinus and Proclus into Arabic.
A statue of Maimonides in Córdoba, Spain. Maimonides’ philosophical-theological work The Guide for the Perplexed contains many neoplatonic influences.
A 19th-century oil painting of Nicholas Copernicus by Jan Matejko in the collection of the Jagiellonian University Museum in Poland. Copernicus studied the neoplatonic philosopher Proclus and in his famous work On the Revolution of Celestial Spheres included information from Proclus' Outline of Astronomical Hypotheses and also in the same work, cited Proclus' Commentary on the First Book of Euclid's Elements.
Part of the Latin translation of Pseudo-Dionysius' De coelesti hierarchia from a manuscript in the Vatican Library. Neoplatonic influences can be seen in De coelesti hierarchia 2.2.

Important Christian neoplatonic influences throughout the Middle Ages were though the early 6th century works Corpus Dionysiacum Areopagiticum of Pseudo-Dionysius and De consolatione philosophiae by Boethius.

Posthumous portrait in tempera
by Sandro Botticelli, 1495

Dante Alighieri

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Italian poet, writer and philosopher.

Italian poet, writer and philosopher.

Posthumous portrait in tempera
by Sandro Botticelli, 1495
Dante Alighieri, attributed to Giotto, in the chapel of the Bargello palace in Florence. This oldest picture of Dante was painted just prior to his exile and has since been extensively restored.
Portrait of Dante, from a fresco in the Palazzo dei Giudici, Florence
Mural of Dante in the Uffizi, Florence, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450
Statue of Dante at the Uffizi
Statue of Dante in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence, Enrico Pazzi, 1865
Dante in Verona, by Antonio Cotti
Statue of Dante Alighieri in Verona
Cenotaph in Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence
Recreated death mask of Dante Alighieri in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence
Dante in the national side of the Italian 2 euro coin
Divina Commedia (1472)
Dante, poised between the mountain of purgatory and the city of Florence, displays the incipit Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita in a detail of Domenico di Michelino's painting, Florence, 1465
Dante Alighieri, detail from Luca Signorelli's fresco in the Chapel of San Brizio, Orvieto Cathedral
Illustration for Purgatorio (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré
Illustration for Paradiso (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré
Illustration for Paradiso (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré

The Convivio chronicles his having read Boethius's De consolatione philosophiae and Cicero's De Amicitia.

14th-century image of a university lecture

Scholasticism

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Medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

Medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

14th-century image of a university lecture

The foundations of Christian scholasticism were laid by Boethius through his logical and theological essays, and later forerunners (and then companions) to scholasticism were Islamic Ilm al-Kalām, literally "science of discourse", and Jewish philosophy, especially Jewish Kalam.

Quintus Aurelius Memmius Symmachus

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6th-century Roman aristocrat, an historian and a supporter of Nicene Christianity.

6th-century Roman aristocrat, an historian and a supporter of Nicene Christianity.

He supported Pope Symmachus in the schism over the Popes' election, and was executed with his son-in-law Boethius after being charged with treason.

manuscript of the Isagoge

Isagoge

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manuscript of the Isagoge
Iluminure from the Hunayn ibn-Ishaq al-'Ibadi manuscript of the Isagoge.
Arabic manuscript of the Isagoge

The Isagoge (Εἰσαγωγή, Eisagōgḗ; ) or "Introduction" to Aristotle's "Categories", written by Porphyry in Greek and translated into Latin by Boethius, was the standard textbook on logic for at least a millennium after his death.