A report on PanamaSouth America and Bogotá

Map of South America showing physical, political, and population characteristics, as per 2018
Embera girl dressed for a dance
A composite relief image of South America
The Bogotá savanna is the high plateau in the Andes where Bogotá is located. The flatlands are clearly visible in the topography and the result of a Pleistocene lake; Lake Humboldt, that existed until around 30,000 years BP
Modern political map of South America
The Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, founder of the city
Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Iglesia de San Francisco is the oldest church standing in Bogotá, built between 1557-1566, located in La Candelaria (the city Oldest part)
"New Caledonia", the ill-fated Scottish Darien scheme colony in the Bay of Caledonia, west of the Gulf of Darien
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America
Bolívar Square and the cathedral
Santo Domingo Church
Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006
The Plateresque Colonial Colegio Mayor de San Bartolomé, built between 1604-1622.
1903 political cartoon. The US government, working with separatists in Panama, engineered a Panamanian declaration of independence from Colombia, then sent US warships and marines to Panama.
The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina
The Royal Street (in 1869), today known as Seventh Avenue (Carrera Séptima)
US President Theodore Roosevelt sitting on a steam shovel at the Panama Canal, 1906
The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.
Bogotá La Sabana railway station
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907
Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.
Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. The Torrijos government was well known for its policies of land redistribution.
The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.
Bogotá is the third largest city within city limits in South America by population, after São Paulo and Lima
US President Jimmy Carter shakes hands with General Omar Torrijos after signing the Panama Canal Treaties (September 7, 1977).
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
International Business Center, Bogotá, D.C.
The aftermath of urban warfare during the US invasion of Panama, 1989
Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo, Suriname
Hailstorm in Bogotá
British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson swapped football shirts with the President of Panama, Juan Carlos Varela in London, May 14, 2018.
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
Eastern Hills
A map of Panama
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790
Sumapaz Páramo
La Palma, Darién
Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.
Street arrangement of Bogotá based on the Cartesian coordinate system: North is to the right. (Typical maps for the city place the north on the left.)
The Chagres River
The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
View of Bogotá from the mountain Monserrate
Colón Harbor, 2000
The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar
Bogotá Future Population (Medium Variant)
Panama map of Köppen climate classification
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
The Centro Andino
A cooler climate is common in the Panamanian highlands.
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.
Parque La Colina Shopping Mall
The National Assembly of Panama
The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
An old house in the Teusaquillo locality, near downtown Bogotá (Estrato 4)
Panama's President-elect Juan Carlos Varela and Vice President Isabel Saint Malo with US Secretary of State John Kerry just before Varela's inauguration in 2014
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War
Map of the TransMilenio system
GDP per capita development Panama since 1950
Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
El Dorado International Airport
A proportional representation of Panama exports, 2019
The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce, 1866
Ciclovía in Bogotá
A Panamax ship in transit through the Miraflores locks, Panama Canal
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
BD Bacatá, under construction, will be the city's tallest building.
Countries with politicians, public officials or close associates implicated in the Panama Papers leak on April 15, 2016
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
Colombian National Museum
Tocumen International Airport, Central America's largest airport
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943
Ibero-American Theater Festival
Zapatilla Island, Panama
Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War
Teatro de Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus Theater)
Fortifications on the Caribbean Side of Panama: Portobelo-San Lorenzo were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.
Estadio El Campín
Population pyramid, 2016
Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.
Monserrate Sanctuary at top of the mount
Panama's population, 1961–2003
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
Atlantis Plaza Mall, featuring the Hard Rock Cafe
Panama City, Panama's capital
Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division.
La Candelaria, the historical district of the city
Plaza de la independencia, Panama City
South American flags
Maloka Museum
Erika Ender
Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.
Bi-articulated TransMilenio bus
A couple dancing Panamanian Cumbia
Official languages in South America
Urban (SITP) bus, part of the integrated public transport system
Panamanian baseball catcher Carlos Ruiz during 2007 Spring Training
Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, Colombia.
Bikepath in central Bogotá
Spanish-Venezuelan protesters in Madrid.
Traffic on the Northern Highway (Autopista Norte)
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
"El Claustro" at the Del Rosario University
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
Luis Carlos Sarmiento Building of Science and Technology at the National University of Colombia
Peruvian woman and her son
Centro Ático at Pontifical Xavierian University
Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana
Mario Laserna Building at the University of the Andes
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Liberators Building at El Bosque University
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
Sergio Arboleda University
KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.
Main Cloister at Saint Thomas Aquinas University
Vineyard in Luján de Cuyo, province of Mendoza, Argentina
Santa Barbara business district
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Victorian architecture in Teusaquillo
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Torres del Parque
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Santa Maria bullring
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.
National Library of Colombia
Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.
Julio Mario Santo Domingo Public Library
EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Virgilio Barco Public Library
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry
El Tintal Public Library
Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Church of Our Lady of Lourdes
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
El Lugar de Su Presencia
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.
Bogotá Colombia Temple
Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero
Abou Bakr Al-Siddiq Mosque
“Chromovegetal Maze” by Carlos Cruz Diez, in Caracas.
Ajiaco is one of the city's most representative dishes
Maracanã Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
"Chocolate santafereño" (Santafe hot chocolate), almojábana, cheese and pandebono
Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup
Simón Bolívar Park
Wind farm in the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela
Journalists' park
Wind power in Parnaíba.
93 Park
Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro
Santander park
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.
El Virrey park
Rodovia dos Bandeirantes, Brazil
Santa Clara Church Museum built between 1629 and 1647. It has a large collection of colonial Colombian paintings.
Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Colonial Art Museum of Bogotá
Rio–Niterói Bridge
Gold Museum of Bogotá
Rio de Janeiro International Airport
Archaeology Museum of Pasca
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Botero Museum
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge in Venezuela
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world
Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.
Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers
Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing
Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest
Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world
Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.
Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world
Mercedes-Benz plant in São Paulo. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.
Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper
Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers
Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.
Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.
Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.
Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.
Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.
Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.
Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.
Oil refinery in Amuay. Venezuela is one of the largest oil producers in the world.

Panama (, ; Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a transcontinental country in Central America and South America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

- Panama

In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.

- South America

Bogotá is the third-highest capital in South America and in the world after Quito and La Paz, at an average of 2640 m above sea level.

- Bogotá

However, the remoteness of New Granada's capital, Santa Fe de Bogotá (the modern capital of Colombia) proved a greater obstacle than the Spanish crown anticipated as the authority of New Granada was contested by the seniority, closer proximity, and previous ties to the viceroyalty of Lima and even by Panama's own initiative.

- Panama

Early in the 20th century, Colombia had to face devastating consequences from the One Thousand Days War, which lasted from 1899 to 1902, and the loss of Panama.

- Bogotá

Some of the most visited places in the region are Iguazu Falls, Recife, Olinda, Machu Picchu, Bariloche, the Amazon rainforest, Rio de Janeiro, São Luís, Salvador, Fortaleza, Maceió, Buenos Aires, Florianópolis, San Ignacio Miní, Isla Margarita, Natal, Lima, São Paulo, Angel Falls, Brasília, Nazca Lines, Cuzco, Belo Horizonte, Lake Titicaca, Salar de Uyuni, La Paz, Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos, Los Roques archipelago, Gran Sabana, Patagonia, Tayrona National Natural Park, Santa Marta, Bogotá, Cali, Medellín, Cartagena, Perito Moreno Glacier and the Galápagos Islands.

- South America

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Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Bogotazo in 1948
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
Relief map
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
Port of Cartagena.
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Colombian tiple
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country in South America with an insular region in North America.

It is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the north, Venezuela to the east, Brazil to the southeast, Ecuador and Peru to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the west and Panama to the northwest.

Colombia comprises 32 departments and the Capital District of Bogotá, the country's largest city.