Bois-Brûlés

bois brulesBois-Brulés
Bois-Brûlés (burnt wood) are Métis.wikipedia
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Métis in Canada

MétisMetisMétis people
The name is most frequently associated with the French-speaking Métis of the Red River Colony in the Red River valley of Canada and the United States.
Such polyethnic people were historically referred to by other terms, many of which are now considered to be offensive, such as Mixed-bloods, Half-breeds, Bois-Brûlés, Bungi, Black Scots, and Jackatars.

Red River Colony

Red River SettlementRed RiverSelkirk Settlement
The name is most frequently associated with the French-speaking Métis of the Red River Colony in the Red River valley of Canada and the United States.

Red River of the North

Red RiverRedRed River Valley
The name is most frequently associated with the French-speaking Métis of the Red River Colony in the Red River valley of Canada and the United States. The young Canadian adventurer Martin McLeod, later a fur trader and Minnesota Territory politician in the United States, referred to the "Brules" in 1837 in his journal of travel to the Red River of the North region with James Dickson, who had a dream of an Indian empire.

Cuthbert Grant

more famous son
The Bois-Brûlés, led by their leader Cuthbert Grant, took part in the Battle of Seven Oaks (1816).

Battle of Seven Oaks

Battle of Seven Oaks (1816)its conflictSeven Oaks
The Bois-Brûlés, led by their leader Cuthbert Grant, took part in the Battle of Seven Oaks (1816).

Pierre Falcon

The "Chanson de la Grenouillère", composed in 1816 by Métis bard Pierre Falcon in honour of the Battle of Seven Oaks, also called "Falcon's Song" or "la Bataille des sept chênes", refers to the Métis participants as victorious "Bois-Brûlés", and the song remained central to Métis lore for generations.

Métis buffalo hunt

buffalo huntersPemmicanannual buffalo hunt
William H. Keating described a group of Métis buffalo hunters he encountered at Pembina by the Red River of the North in 1823 as Bois brulés.

Pembina, North Dakota

PembinaFort PembinaPembina, ND
William H. Keating described a group of Métis buffalo hunters he encountered at Pembina by the Red River of the North in 1823 as Bois brulés.

Red River Rebellion

Red River Resistance1869Riel Rebellion
Later in the 19th century, the people in 1869 came into temporary prominence during the Riel Rebellion in the Red River area.

Métis

Métis peopleMetisMetis people
They were alternatively called Métis; historically the majority were descendants of French Canadian men and First Nations women.

French Canadians

French CanadianFrench-CanadianFrench
They were alternatively called Métis; historically the majority were descendants of French Canadian men and First Nations women.

First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
They were alternatively called Métis; historically the majority were descendants of French Canadian men and First Nations women.

Hudson's Bay Company

Hudson’s Bay CompanyHBCHudson Bay Company
The name Bois-Brûlés seems to have waned in popularity and general use after the merger of the Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company in 1821.

North West Company

XY CompanyNorthwest CompanyNorthwest Fur Company
The name Bois-Brûlés seems to have waned in popularity and general use after the merger of the Hudson's Bay Company and North West Company in 1821.

Martin McLeod

McLeod, Martin
The young Canadian adventurer Martin McLeod, later a fur trader and Minnesota Territory politician in the United States, referred to the "Brules" in 1837 in his journal of travel to the Red River of the North region with James Dickson, who had a dream of an Indian empire.

Jack London

JackJack and Charmian LondonJack London’s
As late as 1900, the American author Jack London used the term in his short story, "An Odyssey of the North".

Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians

Turtle Mountain ChippewaTurtle Mountain Band of ChippewaTurtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota

Pemmican War

disbandmentinvoked its royal charter
The particular Métis band around Red River was referred to as Bois-Brûlés or "burnt wood," which was a French translation of the Ojibwe word meaning "half-burnt woodsmen;" a name the Métis earned because their skin was generally lighter than that of the full-blooded Natives.

Louis Riel (comics)

Louis RielLouis Riel: A Comic-Strip Biographycomic-strip biography
Riel also played a secondary role in the 1995 comic album Le crépuscule des Bois-Brûlés ("The Twilight of Bois-Brûlés").

Half-breed

halfbreedhalf breedsHalfbreeds
During the Pemmican War trials that began in 1818 in Montreal regarding the destruction of the Selkirk Settlement on the Red River the terms Half-Breeds, Bois-Brulés, Brulés and Métifs were defined as "Persons descended from Indian women by white men, and in these trials applied chiefly to those employed by the North-West Company".

Pembina Trail

He is following the bois brules* [Métis], who almost entirely abandon the post when they leave for the hunt, being obliged to go in large bands to protect themselves from the insults of the Sioux, who had not done any harm since I wrote last.

Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Indigenous Amerindian geneticsIndigenous American genetic studiesAncestral Native American
Their children became known as "Métis" or "Bois-Brûlés" by the French colonists and "mixed-bloods", "half-breeds" or "country-born" by the English colonists and Scottish colonists.