Bologna Process

second cycleBologna systemBolognaBologna agreementBologna AccordBologna modelBologna AccordsSorbonne declarationbachelor-master-doctor continuumBologna Declaration
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications.wikipedia
677 Related Articles

European Higher Education Area

EHEAEuropean Higher Education Area (EHEA)Bologna convention
The process has created the European Higher Education Area under the Lisbon Recognition Convention.
As the main objective of the Bologna Process since its inception in 1999, the EHEA was meant to ensure more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe.

European Cultural Convention

Cultural Convention
The process was opened to other countries in the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe, and governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007), Leuven (2009), Budapest-Vienna (2010), Bucharest (2012), Yerevan (2015) and Paris (2018).
Its signature is one of the conditions for becoming a participating state in the Bologna Process and its European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

European Students' Union

ESIBESUESU - European Students' Union
The ESU, EUA, EURASHE, EI, ENQA, UNICE, the Council of Europe and UNESCO are part of the process' follow-up.
ESU is representing the voice of the students in Europe by being a consultative member to the Bologna Process.

Bologna declaration

Bologna declaration on harmonization of European degreesBologna Declaration on the European higher education areaBologna system
It is named after the University of Bologna, where the Bologna declaration was signed by education ministers from 29 European countries in 1999.
The Bologna declaration (in full, Joint Declaration of the European Ministers of Education convened in Bologna on 19 June 1999) is the main guiding document of the Bologna process.

National Academic Recognition Information Centre

NARIC
Other groups at this level are ENIC, NARIC and EURODOC.
All EU and EEA states and all the associated countries in Central and Eastern Europe and Cyprus have a designated National Academic Recognition Information Centre (NARIC), which provides a way to compare academic qualifications as part of the Bologna Process.

Jürgen Rüttgers

Rüttgers, Jürgen
One year before the declaration, education ministers Claude Allegre (France), Jürgen Rüttgers (Germany), Luigi Berlinguer (Italy) and Baroness Blackstone (UK) signed the Sorbonne declaration in Paris in 1998, committing themselves to "harmonising the architecture of the European Higher Education system".
During his time as minister, he was – together with Luigi Berlinguer (Italy), Claude Allegre (France), and Baroness Tessa Blackstone (United Kingdom) – one of the heads of the "Sorbonne declaration", the joint declaration on harmonisation of the architecture of the European higher education system, on 25 May 1998.

EURASHE

European Association of Institutions in Higher EducationEuropean Association of Institutions in Higher Education (EURASHE)European Association of Institutions of Higher Education
The ESU, EUA, EURASHE, EI, ENQA, UNICE, the Council of Europe and UNESCO are part of the process' follow-up.
It is a consultative member of the Bologna Process, a member of the Bologna Follow-up Group and of its Board.

Eurodoc

European Council for Doctoral Candidates and Junior Researchers
Other groups at this level are ENIC, NARIC and EURODOC.
Eurodoc issues policy statements and provides recommendations to academic, corporate and governing institutions on subjects of special relevance to European doctoral candidates and junior researchers (e.g., the Bologna Process or the Lisbon Strategy).

Lisbon Recognition Convention

Lisbon ConventionConvention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European RegionConvention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the Europe Region
The process has created the European Higher Education Area under the Lisbon Recognition Convention.
The Lisbon Recognition Convention is an important instrument for the Bologna Process which aims at creating the "European higher education area" by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe.

Bachelor's degree

bachelorbaccalaureatebachelor’s degree
In most cases, it would take three to four years to earn a bachelor's degree and another one or two years for a master's degree.
A Brazilian "bachelor's" takes three to six years for completion, as well as usually a written monograph or concluding project, in the same way that a European bachelor's can be finished in three to four years, after which time Europeans may embark on a one- to two-year 2nd cycle program usually called a "master's", according to the Bologna Process.

University of Bologna

BolognaBologna UniversityUniversità di Bologna
It is named after the University of Bologna, where the Bologna declaration was signed by education ministers from 29 European countries in 1999.

Budapest

Budapest, HungaryPestBuda
The process was opened to other countries in the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe, and governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007), Leuven (2009), Budapest-Vienna (2010), Bucharest (2012), Yerevan (2015) and Paris (2018).
Under the Bologna Process, many offered qualifications are recognised in countries across Europe.

Magister degree

Magistermag.art.Magister's degree
The lowest graduate degrees are Magister and Diplom, which typically fulfill a thesis requirement (including final examination and thesis defence) and can be obtained after four to six years of study.
Under the accomplishment of the Magister Scientiæ thesis dissertation, that in years of formal education, is generally equivalent to a Ph.D. or Doctorate in universities of North America or Europe given the Bologna comparison system among academic programs.

Licentiate (degree)

licentiatelicentiate degreelicenciate
Only medicine and dentistry retain their non-standard degree structure, where the Licentiate (higher than a master's degree, but less extensive than Doctor of Medicine or Dentistry degrees) is the basic degree.
It's equivalent to an M.Sc. or M.A. in North American universities, or Master in any country of Europe given by the Bologna Process and World Universities affiliates.

Norway

NorwegianKingdom of NorwayNOR
Education follows the Bologna Process involving Bachelor (3 years), Master (2 years) and PhD (3 years) degrees.

Fachhochschule

University of Applied SciencesUniversities of Applied SciencesFachhochschulen
Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences, which have offered bachelor's-equivalent engineering programmes, began offering master's-degree programs in 2005.
Due to the Bologna process, Universitäten and Fachhochschulen award legally equivalent academic bachelor's and master's degrees.

Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
Both end with a maturity examination (matura—similar to French baccalauréat), and may be followed by several forms of higher education, leading to licencjat or inżynier (the Polish Bologna Process first cycle qualification), magister (second cycle qualification) and eventually doktor (third cycle qualification).

Master's degree

mastermasters degreeMasters
In most cases, it would take three to four years to earn a bachelor's degree and another one or two years for a master's degree.
The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).

Chemistry Quality Eurolabels

EurobachelorLabel CommitteeEurodoctorate
The first devoted to a single academic discipline, Chemistry Studies in the European Higher Education Area (which approved Eurobachelor), was held in June 2004 in Dresden.
The Chemistry Quality Eurolabels or European Quality Labels in Chemistry (Labels européens de Qualité en Chimie) is a marketing scheme for chemistry degrees at institutions located within the 45 countries involved in the Bologna process.

Zagreb School of Economics and Management

Zagreb Business School
The first degree in economics still takes four years, and the master's degree is obtained after an additional year at the University of Zagreb's Faculty of Economics and Zagreb School of Economics and Management.
ZŠEM’s undergraduate and graduate programs are in full compliance with the Bologna Process;

Doctorate

doctoraldoctoral degreedoctorate degree
In Belgium, the licentiate was the basic university degree prior to the Bologna Process and was approximately equivalent to a bachelor's degree, while in France and other countries it is the bachelor's-level qualification in the Bologna process.

Albania

Republic of AlbaniaAlbanianALB
The country's tertiary education, an optional stage of formal learning following secondary education, has undergone a thorough reformation and restructuring in compliance with the principles of the Bologna Process.

Diplom

VordiplomDipl.-Ing.diploma
The lowest graduate degrees are Magister and Diplom, which typically fulfill a thesis requirement (including final examination and thesis defence) and can be obtained after four to six years of study.
With the implementation of the Bologna process, awarding new Diplom and Magister degrees has become rare, since they are replaced by bachelor's or master's degrees.

Portugal

PortuguesePortuguese RepublicPOR
The Bologna process has been adopted by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes in 2006.

Doctor of Medicine

M.D.MDmedical degree
Medical and related studies replace the bachelor's degree with six-year first professional degrees and graduate Doctor of Medicine (doktor medicine) degrees.
However, spurred by the Bologna process, a major reform instituted in 1999 to align University programmes with the more universal system of undergraduate (Bachelor's degree) and postgraduate studies (Master's and Doctoral degrees) and as such the degree of 'Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia' is no longer offered and was replaced with the 'Laurea Magistrale in Medicina e Chirurgia' (Master of Medicine and Surgery).