Book of Nehemiah

NehemiahNeh.Noadiah2 Esdras (Nehemiah)2 EzraNechemiahNehNehelamiteNehemiah 10:33–34Nehemiah 6:14
The Book of Nehemiah has been, since the 16th century, a separate book of the Hebrew Bible.wikipedia
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Book of Ezra

EzraBook of Esdras1 Esdræ
Before that date, it had been included in the Book of Ezra; but in Latin Christian bibles from the 13th century onwards, the Vulgate Book of Ezra was divided into two texts, called respectively the First and Second books of Ezra; a separation that became canonised with the first printed bibles in Hebrew and Latin.
The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible; which formerly included the Book of Nehemiah in a single book, commonly distinguished in scholarship as Ezra–Nehemiah.

Nehemiah

NehemiasNechemiahNechemyah
Told largely in the form of a first-person memoir, it concerns the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a Jew who is a high official at the Persian court, and the dedication of the city and its people to God's laws (Torah).
Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period.

Susa

ShushanSusianaSeleucia ad Eulaeum
The capital of the empire is at Susa.
Susa is also mentioned in the Ketuvim of the Hebrew Bible by the name Shushan, mainly in Esther, but also once each in Nehemiah and Daniel.

Tobiah (Ammonite)

Tobiah the AmmoniteTobiah
According to the Book of Nehemiah in the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament, Tobiah was an Ammonite official who attempted to hinder Nehemiah's efforts to rebuild Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile, and took over the storerooms of the Temple for his own use.

Hebrew Bible

TanakhbiblicalHebrew Scriptures
The Book of Nehemiah has been, since the 16th century, a separate book of the Hebrew Bible.

Sanballat the Horonite

SanballatSanballat ISanballat of Samaria
He is best known from the Book of Nehemiah, which casts him as one of the chief opponents of the Jewish governor Nehemiah during the latter's efforts to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem and carrying out his reforms among the Jews.

Torah

PentateuchLawWritten Torah
Told largely in the form of a first-person memoir, it concerns the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a Jew who is a high official at the Persian court, and the dedication of the city and its people to God's laws (Torah).
537 BCE), as described in the Book of Nehemiah.

Ashdod

IsdudAzotusAshdod, Israel
He faces opposition from three powerful neighbours, the Samaritans, the Ammonites, and the Arabs, as well as the city of Ashdod, but manages to rebuild the walls.
In the Book of Nehemiah, the Ashdodites seem to represent the whole nation of the Philistines in the sixth century BCE, the speech of Ashdod (which half of the children from mixed families are described as adopting) would simply be the general Philistine dialect.

Yehud Medinata

Persian periodPersianJudah
At then, the Book of Nehemiah abruptly switches back to Ezra, apparently with no change in the chronology, but the year is not specified.

Cup-bearer

cupbearerCześnikcup bearer
Nehemiah is a cup-bearer to king Artaxerxes I of Persia – an important official position.
His financial ability (Nehemiah 5:8,10,14,17) would indicate that the office was a lucrative one.

Geshem the Arabian

GeshemGeshem (Bible)Gashmu I
He was an ally of Sanballat and Tobiah and adversary of Nehemiah (Neh.

1 Esdras

3 Esdras3 Ezra1
Slightly later a second, and very different Greek translation was made, in the form of 1 Esdras, from which the deeds of Nehemiah are entirely absent, those sections either being omitted or re-attributed to Ezra instead; and initially early Christians reckoned this later translation as their biblical 'Book of Ezra', as had the 1st century Jewish writer Josephus.
Following the example of the Paris Vulgate Bible editions of the 13th century, and in what later became the usage of the Clementine Vulgate and the Anglican Articles of Religion, '1 Esdras' is applied consistently in late medieval bibles to the book corresponding to the modern Book of Ezra; while the modern Book of Nehemiah corresponds to '2 Esdras'.

Old Testament

Oldthe Old TestamentBiblical
From the third century the Christian Old Testament in Greek supplemented the text of 1 Esdras with the older translation of Ezra-Nehemiah, naming the two books Esdras A and Esdras B respectively; and this usage is noted by the early Christian scholar Origen, who remarked that the Hebrew 'book of Ezra' might then be considered a 'double' book.

Vulgate

Latin VulgateVulgate BibleVulgata
Jerome himself rejected the duplication in his Vulgate translation of the Bible into Latin from the Hebrew; and consequently all early Vulgate manuscripts present Ezra-Nehemiah as a single book, as too does the 8th century commentary of Bede, and the 9th century bibles of Alcuin and Theodulf of Orleans.
Also beginning in the 9th century, Vulgate manuscripts are found that split Ezra and the Nehemiah into separate books called 1 Ezra and 2 Ezra.

Esdras

Books of EsdrasEsdrae i (Ezra)Ezra
*Esdras
Likewise, the Vulgate enumeration is often used by modern scholars, who nevertheless use the name Ezra to avoid confusion with the Greek and Slavonic enumerations: 1 Ezra (Ezra), 2 Ezra (Nehemiah), 3 Ezra (Esdras A/1 Esdras), 4 Ezra (chapters 3–14 of 4 Esdras), 5 Ezra (chapters 1–2 of 4 Esdras) and 6 Ezra (chapters 15–16 of 4 Esdras).

Ezra

Ezra the ScribeArtaxerxes(the Scribe)
The combined book Ezra–Nehemiah of the earliest Christian and Jewish period was known as Ezra and was probably attributed to Ezra himself; according to a rabbinic tradition, however, Nehemiah was the real author but was forbidden to claim authorship because of his bad habit of disparaging others.
The canonical Book of Ezra and Book of Nehemiah are the oldest sources for the activity of Ezra, whereas many of the other books ascribed to Ezra (First Esdras, 3–6 Ezra) are later literary works dependent on the canonical books of Ezra and Nehemiah.

Calvinism

CalvinistReformedCalvinists
Mid 16th century Reformed Protestant bible translations produced in Geneva were the first to introduce the name 'Book of Nehemiah' for the text formally called the 'Second book of Ezra'.

Geneva Bible

Breeches BibleGenevaGenevan translation
Mid 16th century Reformed Protestant bible translations produced in Geneva were the first to introduce the name 'Book of Nehemiah' for the text formally called the 'Second book of Ezra'.

Memoir

memoirsmemoiristreminiscent
Told largely in the form of a first-person memoir, it concerns the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a Jew who is a high official at the Persian court, and the dedication of the city and its people to God's laws (Torah).

Ezra–Nehemiah

Ezra-NehemiahEzra and NehemiahEzra
Listed together with the Book of Ezra as Ezra–Nehemiah, it represents the final chapter in the historical narrative of the Hebrew Bible.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
Further editing probably continued into the Hellenistic era.

Artaxerxes I of Persia

Artaxerxes IArtaxerxesArtaxerxes Longimanus
Nehemiah is a cup-bearer to king Artaxerxes I of Persia – an important official position.