Bopomofo

ZhuyinZhuyin FuhaoMandarin Phonetic Symbols;Bopomofoalphabetic writingBopomofo letterㄐChinese phonetic alphabetJuhin'' (''Zhùyīn'')MPS
Bopomofo, also called Zhuyin or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols, is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.wikipedia
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Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
It is also used to transcribe other varieties of Chinese, particularly other varieties of Standard Chinese and related Mandarin dialects, as well as Taiwanese Hokkien.
Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters (plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), and Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Zhuyin for teaching).

Transliteration of Chinese

Chinese transliterationtransliteratetransliteration
Bopomofo, also called Zhuyin or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols, is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
Wu Jingheng (who had developed a "beansprout alphabet") and Wang Zhao (who had developed a Mandarin alphabet, Guanhua Zimu, in 1900) and Lu Zhuangzhang were part of the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation (1912–1913), which developed the rudimentary Jiyin Zimu system of Zhang Binglin into the Mandarin-specific phonetic system now known as Zhuyin Fuhao or Bopomofo, which was eventually proclaimed on 23 November 1918.

Unicode

Unicode StandardUnicode Transformation FormatThe Unicode Standard
Zhuyin Fuhao and Zhuyin are traditional terms, whereas Bopomofo is the colloquial term, also used by the ISO and Unicode.

Wade–Giles

Wade-Gilesformerlyformerly romanized
Zhuyin was introduced in China by the Republican Government in the 1910s and used alongside the Wade–Giles system, which used a modified Latin alphabet.
The tables below show the Wade–Giles representation of each Chinese sound (in bold type), together with the corresponding IPA phonetic symbol (in square brackets), and equivalent representations in Bopomofo and Hànyǔ Pīnyīn.

Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation

The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, led by Wu Zhihui from 1912 to 1913, created a system called Zhuyin Zimu, which was based on Zhang Binglin's shorthand.
The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation was the organization established by Beiyang government in 1912 select ancillary phonetic symbols for Mandarin, (Zhuyin was the product) and set the standard Guoyu pronunciation of basic Chinese characters.

Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II

MPS IIMPS2
A romanized phonetic system was released in 1984 as Mandarin Phonetic Symbols II (MPS II).
It was created to replace the complex tonal-spelling Gwoyeu Romatzyh, and to co-exist with the popular Wade–Giles (romanization) and Zhuyin (non-romanization).

Wu Zhihui

Woo Tsin-hangWu JinghengWoo Chih-hui
The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, led by Wu Zhihui from 1912 to 1913, created a system called Zhuyin Zimu, which was based on Zhang Binglin's shorthand.
Wu Zhihui (Woo Chih-hui, ; 25 March 1865 – 30 October 1953), also known as Woo Tsin-hang or Wu Shi-Fee, was a Chinese linguist and philosopher who was the chairman of the 1912–13 Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation that created Zhuyin (based on Zhang Binglin's work) and standardized Guoyu pronunciation.

Zhang Binglin

Zhang TaiyanMeishuZhang Tai Yan
The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, led by Wu Zhihui from 1912 to 1913, created a system called Zhuyin Zimu, which was based on Zhang Binglin's shorthand. The Zhuyin characters were created by Zhang Binglin, and taken mainly from "regularised" forms of ancient Chinese characters, the modern readings of which contain the sound that each letter represents.
He developed a system of shorthands based on the seal script, called jiyin zimu, later adopted as the basis of zhuyin.

Chinese input methods for computers

input methodChinese input methodsChinese input method
Although Taiwan adopted Hanyu Pinyin as its official romanization system in 2009, Bopomofo is still an official transliteration system there and remains widely used as an educational tool and for electronic input methods.
In mainland China, the wubi (shape-based) and pinyin methods such as Sogou Pinyin and Google Pinyin are the most popular; in Taiwan, Boshiamy, Cangjie, and zhuyin predominate; and in Hong Kong and Macau, the Cangjie is most often taught in schools.

Mandarin Daily News

Additionally, one children's newspaper in Taiwan, the Mandarin Daily News, annotates all articles with Zhuyin ruby characters.
The Mandarin Daily News (Gwoyeu Romatzyh: Gwoyeu Ryhbaw; Zhuyin ㄍㄨㄛˊ ㄩˇ ㄖˋ ㄅㄠˋ) is a traditional Chinese children's newspaper published daily in Taiwan.

Alphabet

alphabeticalphabetsalphabetical
Similarly to the way that the word 'alphabet' is ultimately derived from the names of the first two letters of the alphabet (alpha and beta), the name "Bopomofo" is derived from the first four syllables in the conventional ordering of available syllables in Mandarin Chinese.
Zhuyin (sometimes called Bopomofo) is a semi-syllabary used to phonetically transcribe Mandarin Chinese in the Republic of China.

Taiwanese Hokkien

TaiwaneseHokkienTaiwanese Minnan
It is also used to transcribe other varieties of Chinese, particularly other varieties of Standard Chinese and related Mandarin dialects, as well as Taiwanese Hokkien.
The Kuomintang government also tried to introduce an orthography in bopomofo.

Ruby character

ruby charactersrubyruby text
In elementary school, particularly in the lower years, Chinese characters in textbooks are often annotated with Zhuyin as ruby characters as an aid to learning.
In Taiwan, the syllabary used for Chinese ruby characters is Zhuyin fuhao (also known as Bopomofo); in mainland China pinyin is used.

Standard Chinese phonology

tonefour tonesMandarin phonology
As shown in the following table, tone marks for the second, third, and fourth tones are shared between bopomofo and pinyin.
For correspondences with other systems, see the relevant articles, such as Wade–Giles, Bopomofo (Zhuyin), Gwoyeu Romatzyh, etc., and Romanization of Chinese.

Pinyin

Hanyu PinyinpPīnyīn
As shown in the following table, tone marks for the second, third, and fourth tones are shared between bopomofo and pinyin. The Wade system was replaced by Hanyu Pinyin in 1958 by the Government of the People's Republic of China, and at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1982.
Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, and the diacritic markings from zhuyin (bopomofo).

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
It is also used to transcribe other varieties of Chinese, particularly other varieties of Standard Chinese and related Mandarin dialects, as well as Taiwanese Hokkien. Similarly to the way that the word 'alphabet' is ultimately derived from the names of the first two letters of the alphabet (alpha and beta), the name "Bopomofo" is derived from the first four syllables in the conventional ordering of available syllables in Mandarin Chinese.

Chinese characters

ChineseChinese characterChinese:
The last renaming addressed fears that the alphabetic system might independently replace Chinese characters.
In the Philippines, most Chinese schools and businesses still use the traditional characters and bopomofo, owing from influence from the Republic of China (Taiwan) due to the shared Hokkien heritage.

Taiwanese Phonetic Symbols

The system is derived from Mandarin Phonetic Symbols by creating additional symbols for the sounds that do not appear in Mandarin phonology.

Zhuyin table

This Zhuyin table is a complete listing of all Zhuyin/Bopomofo syllables used in Standard Chinese.

Regular script

regularKaishuKaiti
The Zhuyin characters were created by Zhang Binglin, and taken mainly from "regularised" forms of ancient Chinese characters, the modern readings of which contain the sound that each letter represents.

Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts

vertical writingwritten verticallyvertically
Unlike Hanyu Pinyin, Zhuyin aligns well with the hanzi characters in books whose texts are printed vertically, making Zhuyin better suited for annotating the pronunciation of vertically oriented Chinese text.
However, zhuyin in Taiwanese Chinese is usually written vertically regardless of the direction of the main text.

Big5

Big-5Big 5Big5 encoding
The "graphical characters" actually comprise punctuation marks, partial punctuation marks (e.g., half of a dash, half of an ellipsis; see below), dingbats, foreign characters, and other special characters (e.g., presentational "full width" forms, digits for Suzhou numerals, zhuyin fuhao, etc.)

Semi-syllabary

Semisyllabarysemi-syllabariessemi-syllabic
One of these is zhuyin, a phonetic script devised for transcribing certain varieties of Chinese.

Spacing Modifier Letters

Spacing Modifier Letters (Unicode block)
Unicode 3.0 also added the characters U+02EA and U+02EB, in the Spacing Modifier Letters block.