Border

boundaryinternational borderBordersboundariesstate linecounty linecross-borderinternational boundarynational borderline
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.wikipedia
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Open border

open bordersopencontrolled border policy
Some borders—such as a state's internal administrative border, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area—are often open and completely unguarded.
An open border is a border that enables free movement of people (and often of goods) between jurisdictions with few or no restrictions on movement, that is lacking substantive border control.

Frontier

frontiersmanfrontiersmenAmerican frontier
A difference has also been established in academic scholarship between border and frontier, the latter denoting a state of mind rather than state boundaries.
A frontier is the political and geographical area near or beyond a boundary.

March (territory)

marchmarchesMark
In the past, many borders were not clearly defined lines; instead there were often intervening areas often claimed and fought over by both sides, sometimes called marchlands.
In medieval Europe, a march or mark was, in broad terms, any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".

Border control

border crossingimmigration policyInternational Zone
Other borders are partially or fully controlled, and may be crossed legally only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled. In places where smuggling, migration, and infiltration are a problem, many countries fortify borders with fences and barriers, and institute formal border control procedures.
Border controls are measures taken by a country or a bloc of countries to monitor its borders in order to regulate the movement of people, animals and goods.

Smuggling

smugglersmugglerssmuggled
Moving goods, animals, or people illegally across a border, without declaring them or seeking permission, or deliberately evading official inspection, constitutes smuggling. Smuggling provides a classic case; contrariwise, a border region may flourish on the provision of excise or of import–export services — legal or quasi-legal, corrupt or legitimate.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.

Border barrier

border fenceborder wallbarrier
In places where smuggling, migration, and infiltration are a problem, many countries fortify borders with fences and barriers, and institute formal border control procedures.
Before the transfers of sovereignty back to the PRC, the Hong Kong–Guangdong and Macau–Guangdong borders were regarded as international borders.

Canada–United States border

Canada–US borderCanadian borderInternational Boundary
This is common in countries within the European Schengen Area and on rural sections of the Canada–United States border. The United States has notably increased measures taken in border control on the Canada–United States border and the United States–Mexico border during its War on Terrorism (See Shantz 2010).
The Canada–United States border (frontière Canada–États-Unis), officially known as the International Boundary (Frontière Internationale), is the longest international border in the world between two countries.

Immigration

immigrantimmigrantsimmigrated
To stay or work within a country's borders aliens (foreign persons) may need special immigration documents or permits; but possession of such documents does not guarantee that the person should be allowed to cross the border.
When people cross national borders during their migration, they are called migrants or immigrants (from Latin: migrare, wanderer) from the perspective of the country which they enter.

River

riverineriparianleft bank
Maritime borders exist in the context of territorial waters, contiguous zones, and exclusive economic zones; however, the terminology does not encompass lake or river boundaries, which are considered within the context of land boundaries.
Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, and as a means of disposing of waste.

Thalweg

talwegcentre of the rivermiddle of the main flow
Under international law, a thalweg is the middle of the primary navigable channel of a waterway that defines the boundary line between states.

Rhine

Rhine RiverRiver RhineRhine Valley
The southern half of the Upper Rhine forms the border between France (Alsace) and Germany (Baden-Württemberg).

Border checkpoint

border crossingborder postcheckpoint
Other borders are partially or fully controlled, and may be crossed legally only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled.

Import

importsimporterimportation
Smuggling provides a classic case; contrariwise, a border region may flourish on the provision of excise or of import–export services — legal or quasi-legal, corrupt or legitimate.
An import is goods brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source.

Mexico–United States border

U.S.-Mexico borderMexican borderUnited States–Mexico border
The United States has notably increased measures taken in border control on the Canada–United States border and the United States–Mexico border during its War on Terrorism (See Shantz 2010).
The Mexico–United States border (frontera México–Estados Unidos) is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Gulf of Mexico in the east.

List of countries and territories by land and maritime borders

Most countries borderedCountries borderedmore than any other country
Land borders and maritime boundaries are included and are tabulated separately and in combination.

Limes

Frontiers of the Roman EmpireRoman LimesLimes Romanus
Limes has sometimes been used in modern times primarily for the Germanic border defence or delimiting system of Ancient Rome marking the Borders of the Roman Empire, but it was not used by the Romans for this purpose.

Drainage divide

watershedwater dividedivide
Since ridgelines are sometimes easy to see and agree about, drainage divides may form natural borders defining political boundaries, as with the Royal Proclamation of 1763 in British North America which coincided with the ridgeline of the Appalachian Mountains forming the Eastern Continental Divide that separated settled colonial lands in the east from Indian Territory to the west.

List of countries and territories by land borders

land borderTotal land bordersLand borders
This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.

List of national border changes since World War I

border changesannexedhistory of border changes
Since World War I, there have been numerous changes in borders between nations, detailed below.

Interreg

ESPONInterreg IIIEuropean INTERREG Programme
In Europe, the European Union provides financial support to cross-border regions via its Interreg programme.
One of its main targets is to diminish the influence of national borders in favor of equal economic, social and cultural development of the whole territory of the European Union.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
In Europe, the European Union provides financial support to cross-border regions via its Interreg programme. In much of Europe, controls on persons were abolished by the 1985 Schengen Agreement and subsequent European Union legislation.
Frontex is an agency of the EU established to manage the cooperation between national border guards securing its external borders.

Geography

geographicalgeographicgeographer
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.

Political geography

politicalpoliticallypolitical geographer
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.

Jurisdiction (area)

jurisdictionjurisdictionsstate
Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.