Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instabilityborderline personalitiesBPDImpulsive personality disorderborderline disorderborderline disordersborderline levelborderline personality disorder (BPD)
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a mental illness characterized by a long-term pattern of unstable relationships, a distorted sense of self, and strong emotional reactions.wikipedia
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Abandonment (emotional)

abandonmentabandonment issuesemotional abandonment
People may also struggle with a feeling of emptiness, fear of abandonment, and detachment from reality.
While such maladaptive thoughts and behaviors are sometimes present in the context of certain psychological disorders (e.g., borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, depression, anxiety disorders), not all individuals who experience feelings of emotional abandonment will meet criteria for such a psychological disorder.

Emptiness

The Emptinessvacuityexistential vacuum
People may also struggle with a feeling of emptiness, fear of abandonment, and detachment from reality.
despair, or other mental/emotional disorders, including schizoid personality disorder, post trauma, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizotypal personality disorder and borderline personality disorder.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a mental illness characterized by a long-term pattern of unstable relationships, a distorted sense of self, and strong emotional reactions.
A number of different personality disorders are listed, including those sometimes classed as "eccentric", such as paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders; types that have described as "dramatic" or "emotional", such as antisocial, borderline, histrionic or narcissistic personality disorders; and those sometimes classed as fear-related, such as anxious-avoidant, dependent, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
BPD is typically treated with therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
When compared to psychoactive medications, review studies have found CBT alone to be as effective for treating less severe forms of depression and anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), tics, substance abuse, eating disorders and borderline personality disorder.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
Up to 10% of people affected die by suicide.
Others estimate that about half of people who complete suicide could be diagnosed with a personality disorder, with borderline personality disorder being the most common.

Impulsivity

impulsiveimpulsivenessimpulsive behavior
Impulsivity is both a facet of personality and a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Self-destructive behavior

self-destructiveself-destructionself-destructive behaviour
Self-destructive behavior is often associated with mental illnesses such as borderline personality disorder or schizophrenia.

Self-harm

self-mutilationself-injuryself harm
There is often self-harm and other dangerous behavior.
The key areas of disorder which exhibit an increased risk include autism spectrum disorders, borderline personality disorder, dissociative disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, phobias, and conduct disorders.

Splitting (psychology)

splittingpsychological splittingsplit off
This phenomenon is sometimes called splitting.
Splitting has been noted especially with persons diagnosed with borderline personality disorder.

Promiscuity

promiscuouswomanizerwomanizing
Impulsive behavior is common, including substance or alcohol abuse, eating disorders, unprotected sex or indiscriminate sex with multiple partners, reckless spending, and reckless driving.
Severe and impulsive promiscuity, along with a compulsive urge to engage in illicit sex with attached individuals is a common symptom of borderline personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder but most promiscuous individuals do not have these disorders.

Identity disturbance

disturbed sense of identity
It appears to be linked to emotional dysregulation, which has been shown to be a significant predictor of identity disturbance in psychiatric patients even when controlling for borderline personality disorder diagnosis, depression, and anxiety.

Marsha M. Linehan

Marsha Linehan
According to Marsha Linehan, the sensitivity, intensity, and duration with which people with BPD feel emotions have both positive and negative effects.
Her primary research is in borderline personality disorder, the application of behavioral models to suicidal behaviors, and drug abuse.

Dysphoria

dysphoricdysphoric moodagitation
While people with BPD feel euphoria (ephemeral or occasional intense joy), they are especially prone to dysphoria (a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction), depression, and/or feelings of mental and emotional distress.

Identity disorder

identity problem
The condition must be differentiated from an identity problem or substance use disorders, among other possibilities.
In practice, if a person's distress persisted or worsened, an Identity problem would often be succeeded by a diagnosis of an actual disorder, such as a mood disorder or borderline personality disorder.

Child abuse

abuseabusiveabused
There is a strong correlation between child abuse, especially child sexual abuse, and development of BPD.
Effects of child sexual abuse on the victim(s) include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), self-esteem difficulties, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, other mental illnesses including borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, bulimia nervosa, and physical injury to the child, among other problems.

Child sexual abuse

child molestationchild molestermolested
There is a strong correlation between child abuse, especially child sexual abuse, and development of BPD.
Besides dissociative identity disorder (DID), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD), child sexual abuse survivors may present borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa.

Psychotherapy

psychotherapistpsychotherapeutictherapy
BPD is typically treated with therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
The concept of "third wave" psychotherapies reflects an influence of Eastern philosophy in clinical psychology, incorporating principles such as meditation into interventions such as mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder.

Depression (mood)

depressiondepressedmelancholy
Substance abuse, depression, and eating disorders are commonly associated with BPD.
Outside the mood disorders: borderline personality disorder often features an extremely intense depressive mood; adjustment disorder with depressed mood is a mood disturbance appearing as a psychological response to an identifiable event or stressor, in which the resulting emotional or behavioral symptoms are significant but do not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode; and posttraumatic stress disorder, a mental disorder that sometimes follows trauma, is commonly accompanied by depressed mood.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
BPD is recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) as a personality disorder, along with nine other such disorders.
DSM-5 lists ten specific personality disorders: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
Nonetheless, the researchers of this study concluded that personality disorders "seem to be more strongly influenced by genetic effects than almost any [[Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders#DSM-IV-TR Multi-axial system|axis I]] disorder [e.g., bipolar disorder, depression, eating disorders], and more than most broad personality dimensions."
These disorders include schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and certain personality disorders, such as borderline personality disorder.

Domestic violence

domestic abusespousal abuseabusive
Like other personality disorders, BPD is linked to increased levels of chronic stress and conflict in romantic relationships, decreased satisfaction of romantic partners, abuse, and unwanted pregnancy.
Dutton has suggested a psychological profile of men who abuse their wives, arguing that they have borderline personalities that are developed early in life.

Self-complexity

Self-complexity, or considering one's self to have many different characteristics, may lessen the apparent discrepancy between an actual self and a desired self-image.
Specifically, the perspective suggests that highly self-complex individuals are at less risk for depression and psychopathologies, such as borderline personality disorder, because they can compensate for their negatively affected self-aspects by focusing on their unaffected self-aspects, thus preserving their global self-worth.

Dialectical behavior therapy

dialectical behavioral therapyDBTdialectical behaviour therapy
Another type, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), may reduce the risk of suicide.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy that began with efforts to treat borderline personality disorder (also known as Emotional Instability Disorder).

Avoidant personality disorder

avoidantavoidance behaviorAvoidance
Cluster C, avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive, showed the least overlap, slightly under one third.
In particular, avoidants who have comorbid PTSD have the highest rates of engagement in self-harming behavior, outweighing even those with borderline personality disorder (with or without PTSD).

Dissociation (psychology)

dissociationdissociativedissociative state
People may also struggle with a feeling of emptiness, fear of abandonment, and detachment from reality.