A report on Borneo and Majapahit

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.
Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
Kapuas River in Indonesia; at 1000 km in length, it is the longest river in Borneo.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to Borneo
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
NASA satellite image of Borneo on 19 May 2002
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Logging road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island, were feared for their headhunting practices.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei from 1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of Labuan on 24 December 1846
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The present boundaries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are largely inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
The Dayak tribe during an Erau ceremony in Tenggarong
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Arab-Malay Sultan of Pontianak in 1930
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Japanese troops march through the streets of Labuan on 14 January 1942.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Sukarno visiting Pontianak, West Kalimantan in 1963
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Balikpapan, a major city in Borneo
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Political divisions of Borneo
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom.

- Borneo

According to the Nagarakretagama, canto XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago, Luzon and some parts of the Visayas islands as under the Majapahit realm of power.

- Majapahit
Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.

16 related topics with Alpha



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State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

The Royal Crown in Istana Bukit Serene, Johor, dubbed the "Jewel"
Map of the Dominion of Johor, 1727
A painting by John Edmund Taylor showing people in rowboats on the Johor River in the evening seen from Changi in Singapore, July 1879
Johor Bahru town during the British period, c. 1920
Indian troops embark onto boats during an invasion exercise in southern Johore, 13 November 1941.
Three Australian 8th Division members firing on Japanese Type 95 Ha-Gō tanks on the Muar-Parit Sulong road during the Battle of Muar, 18 January 1942
View of the blown up Johor–Singapore Causeway with the gap visible in the middle, which delayed the Japanese conquest of Singapore for over a week to 8 February 1942
Additional Japanese troops advancing through an iron bridge in Labis which had been destroyed by the retreating British forces down the Malayan Peninsula, 22 January 1942
British Brigadier J J McCully inspects men of the 4th Regiment of the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) guerrillas at Johor Bahru after the end of war against the Japanese, 1945
MPAJA guerrillas marching through the street of Johor Bahru during their disbandment ceremony in December 1945
Onn Jaafar (left), the Menteri Besar of Johor and founder of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) with Dr. W. Linehan (right), C.M.G. Adviser on Constitutional Affairs during the Federation of Malaya Agreements in 1948
Dato' Jaafar Muhammad Building in Kota Iskandar, which houses the office of the Menteri Besar of Johor
The Johor Royal Family in 2015
The Sultan Ismail Building houses the Johor State Legislative Assembly in Kota Iskandar, Iskandar Puteri.
A district and land office in Segamat District.
A district council office in Mersing District.
A municipal council office in Kluang District.
A FELDA office in Kota Tinggi District.
Sultan Ibrahim leading the Johor Military Forces (JMF) during the King's Birthday Parade of George V in Singapore, c. 1920
Map of the disputed island and rocks
Johor is located in southern Malay Peninsula as seen from NASA satellite image.
Forest trees of Johor in tropical rainforest climate
A female tiger shrike (Lanius tigrinus) in Panti Forest
Heron in a swamp of Johor
Crocodile sanctuary in Pasir Gudang.
Shipping container in Tanjung Pelepas Port
Theme park tourism such as the Legoland Malaysia Resort (pictured) has been a major part of the state economy since their opening in 2012.
Palm oil and pineapple plantation in Rengit, Batu Pahat District.
A farmers' market in Pontian Kechil, Pontian District.
Puteri Harbour Family Park landscapes
Johor Bahru city centre at dusk
A village in Johor with a telephone line
Tebrau Highway leading to the city centre, part of Federal Route 3
Johor Bahru Sentral railway station in Johor Bahru.
Senai International Airport in Senai.
Puteri Harbour International Ferry Terminal in Iskandar Puteri.
Sultanah Aminah Hospital, the main government hospital in the state
University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) chancellory building.
Southern University College main gate in Skudai, Iskandar Puteri.
Johor residents with families near the end of the year
Girls from the aboriginal people of Johor
Multilingual sign in Malay, English and Chinese at a workshop in Kota Tinggi.
The Johor Heritage Foundation building in the state capital
Zapin performance in a school in Batu Pahat
Chingay parade celebration in the capital city as part of Chinese New Year festivities in 2018
Mee bandung in Johor
The Tan Sri Dato' Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium was the home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim until 2019.
The new home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim since 2020.
Mount Ophir
Rawa Island beach
Sunrise over a palm oil plantation
Waterfall in Mount Belumut

After the demise of the kingdom, much of the Malay coast fell under the jurisdiction of Siam and later Majapahit.

Johor became an empire spanning the southern Malay Peninsula, Riau Archipelago (including Singapore), Anambas Islands, Tambelan Archipelago, Natuna Islands, a region around the Sambas River in south-western Borneo and Siak in Sumatra together with allies of Pahang, Aru and Champa, and it aspired to retake Malacca from the Portuguese.

Mount Bromo in East Java


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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Borneo lies to the north, and Christmas Island is to the south.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

A 1644 map of New Guinea and the surrounding area

New Guinea

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World's second-largest island with an area of 785753 km2.

World's second-largest island with an area of 785753 km2.

A 1644 map of New Guinea and the surrounding area
Regions of Oceania: Australasia, Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia. Physiographically, Australasia includes the Australian landmass (including Tasmania), New Zealand, and New Guinea.
New Guinea located in relation to Melanesia
New Guinea map of Köppen climate classification
Mount Bosavi
Political divisions of New Guinea
Topographical map of New Guinea
Dani tribesman in the Baliem Valley
Kurulu Village War Chief at Baliem Valley
Korowai tribesman
The raggiana bird-of-paradise is native to New Guinea.
The floristic region of Malesia
New Guinea crocodile
Coral reefs in Papua New Guinea
The continent of Sahul before the rising ocean sundered Australia and New Guinea after the last ice age.
Group of natives at Mairy Pass. Mainland of British New Guinea in 1885.
Papuans on the Lorentz River, photographed during the third South New Guinea expedition in 1912–13.
New Guinea from 1884 to 1919. The Netherlands controlled the western half of New Guinea, Germany the north-eastern part, and Britain the south-eastern part.
A Japanese military map of New Guinea from 1943.
Australian soldiers resting in the Finisterre Ranges of New Guinea while en route to the front line.
Map of New Guinea, with place names as used in English in the 1940s
Western New Guinea was formally annexed by Indonesia in 1969
Papua province
Highland Papua province
Central Papua province
South Papua province
West Papua province

In 2020, an international study conducted by a team of 99 experts cataloged 13,634 species representing 1,742 genera and 264 families of vascular plants for New Guinea and its associated islands (Aru Islands, Bismarck Archipelago,, Louisiade Archipelago), making it the world's most floristically diverse island, surpassing Madagascar (11,488), Borneo (11,165), Java (4,598), and the Philippines (9,432).

The Negarakertagama mentioned the region of Wanin and Sran, in eastern Nusantara as part of Majapahit's tributary.


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City in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

City in South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Burial complex of Sultan Suriansyah, first sultan of Banjar
Engagement between Banjarese kotta mara (floating fortress) against Dutch steam ship Celebes, 6 August 1859
Fort Tatas, a Dutch fortress in Banjarmasin, 1924
Route of Japanese attack on Borneo, 1942
Banjarmasin mayor office building
Central Asia Bank branch in Banjarmasin
A church in Banjarmasin
Ulin Regional Hospital building
Mass gathered during Haul Guru Sekumpul
Siring Park at night
Duta Mall Banjarmasin is the biggest shopping mall in the city
A flyover in Banjarmasin
Banjarmasin Post office building

It is the third most populous city on the island of Borneo.

Outside records indicate it was home to several kingdoms such as Tanjungpuri—theorized to have been founded by Malay people from Srivijaya—and Negara Daha and Dipa, which were founded by Javanese people from Majapahit.

An ancient yūpa of Mulawarman, king of Kutai


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An ancient yūpa of Mulawarman, king of Kutai
A yūpa with inscription in the National Museum of Indonesia in Jakarta
The Lesong Batu stone located in Muara Kaman district, the remnants of the Kutai Martadipura kingdom
The golden crown of Kutai Sultan, part of the regalia of Kutai Kartanegara Sultanate. Collection of the National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.
Portrait of the Crown Princess of Kutai, wife of the later Sultan Ali Muhammad Alimuddin, in bridal wear
Kutai people of east Borneo

Kutai is a historical region in East Kalimantan, Indonesia on the island of Borneo and is also the name of the native ethnic group of the region (known as Urang Kutai or "the Kutai people"), numbering around 300,000 who have their own language known as the Kutainese language which accompanies their own rich history.

It may be possible that the name Kutai, as in Tuñjung Kute of the 1365 Javanese Majapahit poem Nāgarakṛtāgama is as ancient and reflects the original name used a thousand years earlier.

Map of maritime Southeast Asia in the 14th century

Tanjungpura Kingdom

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Map of maritime Southeast Asia in the 14th century

Tanjungpura Kingdom was the name of an ancient 8th century kingdom that was located along the southwestern coast of Borneo facing the Java Sea, a region that today corresponds to the Ketapang Regency of West Kalimantan province of Indonesia.

During Majapahit rule, ‘Tanjungpura’ is used with ‘Tanjung’ as the local name for the kingdom.