A report on IndonesiaMajapahit and Borobudur

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
Candi Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Exposed Buddha image within the stupas of Borobudur upper terraces
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been installed above the main stupa.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Borobudur in 1872.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
Terrace on the temple of Borobudur 1913
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now dismantled).
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
The Unfinished Buddha from the main stupa of Borobudur at Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage system during the 1973 restoration
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Location of Borobudur relative to Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes Mount Merbabu (left) and Merapi (right)
Population pyramid 2016
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Tourists in Borobudur
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Aerial view of Borobudur, it took the form of a step pyramid and mandala plan
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning house.
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
An Indonesian batik
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
A relief of Jataka story of giant turtle that saving drowned sailors.
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A relief of the Gandavyuha story from Borobudur 2nd level north wall.
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Asia in the early 14th century
Head from a Borobudur Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Headless Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
Lion gate guardian
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Sukarno and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting Borobudur in June 1950.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
Emblem of Central Java displaying Borobudur.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of gamelan.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The Apsara of Borobudur.
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
One relief on a corridor wall.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Tara holding a Chamara
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
Surasundari holding a lotus
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Close up of a relief
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Various keris and pole weapons of Java
Dancer dancing to orchestra of cymbals, chime cymbals and flutes.
World Heritage inscription of Borobudur Temple
The procedures signage for visiting Borobudur Temple
The inscription of Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of Borobudur Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum. People still can't locate their original positions.
A Buddha statue inside a stupa

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur (Candi Borobudur, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ) is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

- Borobudur

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

- Indonesia

The only old Javanese manuscript that hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a Buddhist scholar of Majapahit court, in 1365.

- Borobudur

Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan.

- Indonesia

Modern depictions of the Majapahit navy often depict outrigger ships, in reality, these ships were from 8th century Borobudur ship bas relief.

- Majapahit

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Overall

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

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A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks
Javanese temple.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

Javanese heritage has created the largest temples in the world like Prambanan and Borobudur.

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods

Mataram Kingdom

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Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
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The Plaosan temple with Mount Merapi in the background.
Canggal inscription (732), created by King Sanjaya.
The 9th century Central Javanese gold and silver image of the Mahayana Buddhist goddess Tara
The construction of Kalasan temple was mentioned in Kalasan inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran.
The construction of Manjusrigrha temple was mentioned in Manjusrigrha inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran and completed during Dharanindra reign.
The construction of Mendut temple was initiated and completed during the reign of King Indra (r. 780–800), a valiant king of Shailendra dynasty.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (circa 900 CE) from the Laguna de Bay area in Luzon, the Philippines. The inscription invokes the "chief" (pamegat) of "Mdang" as one of the authorities in the clearing of a debt owed to the "chief and commander" (pamegat senapati) of "Tundun".
The massive stone stupa-mandala of Borobudur was completed in 825 during the reign of King Samaratungga.
Ratu Boko, a fortified hill, probably referred in Shivagrha inscription as the location of a battle.
Shivagrha inscription dated 778 Saka (856 CE), one of the historical source dated from the Mataram Kingdom.
Ijo, a 10th-century Hindu temple located on Ijo Hill Southeast from Prambanan
A battle scene depicted on a bas-relief in Prambanan.
Bubrah temple
Sajiwan Buddhist temple, linked to Nini Haji Rakryan Sanjiwana or Sri Kahulunnan
Borobudur ship, a ship used by Javanese people for sailing as far as Ghana.
Towering Merapi volcano overlooking Prambanan prasad tower. It was suggested that Merapi volcanic eruption had devastated Mataram capital, forcing them to relocate in the east.
Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.
Barong Hindu temple, constructed on large terraces.
Badut temple near Malang, East Java circa 8th century
Anjukladang inscription (937), issued by King Sindok during his power consolidation in East Java.
Bodhisattva Manjushri from Goa Gajah cave, Bali, demonstrated the influence of Javanese Mataram Sailendran art.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra, the hostility between two kingdoms has led to the collapse of Mataram kingdom.
Buddhist bronze figure depicting Boddhisattva Padmapani, 10th-century dated from late period of Mataram Kingdom
Plaosan twin temples
The scene of the Javanese court depicted in Borobudur bas relief
Prambanan prāsāda (towers) viewed from Ratu Boko hill, the area in Prambanan Plain was the location of the Mataram capital.
The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depicts the scene in royal court.
Image of Boddhisattva on Plaosan temple.
The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java
Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java — Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century
A nobleman accompanied by his entourage and servants, a bas-relief of Borobudur.
A Buddhist hermit meditating in secluded forest, Borobudur bas-relief
The statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani inside the Mendut temple
Shiva statue in main chamber of Prambanan.
The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Mataram kingdom.
The magnificent 9th-century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Mataram.
Bas relief in Prambanan depicting a scene taken from Ramayana. The translation of Indian epic into Javanese Kakawin Ramayana took place during Mataram kingdom.
National Vesak ceremony in Borobudur, the Hindu-Buddhist temples dated from Mataram Kingdom are especially important for pilgrimage and ceremony for Indonesian Buddhist and Hindus.
The Javanese Ramayana Ballet perform in Prambanan open air stage. The Mataram Kingdom era has left a profound impact in Javanese culture.

The most notable of the temples constructed in Mataram are Kalasan, Sewu, Borobudur and Prambanan, all quite close to present-day city of Yogyakarta.

The proper urban development as a city took place later in 13th-century Majapahit's Trowulan.

It was the largest Hindu temple ever built in Indonesia, evidence of the immense wealth and cultural achievement of the kingdom.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Java (Jawa, ; ꦗꦮ; ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Four of Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, and Sangiran Early Man Site.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest

Srivijaya

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The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park

Srivijaya (Sriwijaya, ; Srivijaya, ) was a Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

In the second half of the eighth century, the capital of Srivijayan Mandala seems to be relocated and reestablished in Central Java, in the splendid court of the Mataram Kingdom located somewhere in fertile Kedu and Kewu Plain, in the same location of the majestic Borobudur, Manjusrigrha and Prambanan monuments.

Gamelan musical instrument

Gamelan

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Gamelan musical instrument
Musicians performing musical ensemble, The 8th century bas-relief of Borobudur Temple, Central Java, Indonesia
A gamelan player playing bonang. Gamelan Yogyakarta style during a Javanese wedding.
Gamelan is mentioned in the Kakawin Nagarakertagama in a palm-leaf manuscript called lontar that was written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365 AD. A collection of National Library of Indonesia in Jakarta
The court of the Sultan of Yogyakarta, c. 1876. Performance of Bedhaya Sacred Dance accompanied by Javanese Gamelan Ensemble
Various Javanese musical instrument in Gamelan Salindro, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781-1826).
Javanese Gamelan Munggang (one of sacred gamelans) being played (as part of ritual) in Surakarta Sunanate, Central Java, Indonesia, 2000
A sindhen is singing a Javanese song accompanied by Gamelan ensemble
Javanese Gamelan in Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Balinese Gamelan in Museu de la Música de Barcelona, Spain
K.P.H. Notoprojo, a famous Indonesian Javanese Gamelan and Rebab player, between 1945 and 1955
The three major indigenous genres of gong-chime music prevalent in Southeast Asia: this includes the Gamelan of western Indonesia; the kulintang of the southern Philippines, eastern Indonesia, and eastern Malaysia; and the piphat of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Burma
Pande (Gamelan Maker) is burning Gong in Besalen in Central Java, Indonesia
Pandes (Gamelan Makers) are forging a gamelan instrument called Kempul (small hanging gong) after burning it, Central Java, Indonesia
Gamelan is used by patients at Sumber Porong Mental Hospital in Java, between 1902 and 1922
Michael Tenzer played Balinese Gamelan in 1992
Gamelan Degung Ensemble performance for the recording at the Radio Republik Indonesia studio, Jakarta, on 24 April 1966
K.R.T. Rahayu Supanggah, one of gamelan maestros. He introduced gamelan to almost the entire world, actively researching, writing, training, creating compositions, teaching, and performing
Kempul
Gong Ageng
Kenong
Bonang
Demung
Saron
Peking
Gendèr
Slenthem
Kendang
thumb|Bedug
thumb|Gambang
Kethuk/Kempyang
thumb|Celempung
thumb|Siter
thumb|Rebab
thumb|Suling or Seruling
thumb|Kemanak
thumb|Kecer
thumb|Keprak
Gong Lanang
Gong Wadon
Gong Klentong
Trompong
Reyong
Ugal
Kantilan
Pemade
Kenyur
Jegogan
Jublag
Klenang
Kendhang Semaradana
Ceng-ceng Kepyak
Ceng-ceng Ricik
Gentora
Suling gambuh
Gender wayang
Rindhik
Curing
Javanese gamelan being played in Keraton Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 25 October 2009
thumb|Wayang Kulit performance with Gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A gamelan ensemble with a group of singers (Sindhen (Female) and Gerong (Male) at the Mangkunegaran Royal Palace in Surakarta, Central Java, between 1870 and 1892
A Gamelan Ensemble was played to accompany the inauguration of the Prince of the late Paku Alam VII at Pakualaman Palace, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, before 1949
A Dalang (Puppeteer), Sindhen (singer) and Wiyaga (gamelan musicians) with Javanese Gamelan at Keraton Yogyakarta the Sultan's Palace in Yogyakarta - Around 1885
Gamelan orchestra in East Java, late 19th century
Balinese Gamelan Performance (part of the ritual) in a Temple, Bali, Circa 1920
A balinese dancer performed Kebyar duduk dance accompanied by a Balinese gamelan Ensemble, Bali, Indonesia, before 1952
Barong dance performance accompanied by a gamelan ensemble, Bali, Indonesia, before 1959
Balinese girls practiced legong dance accompanied by gamelan in Ubud, Bali, Dutch east Indies, between 1910 and 1930
Balinese Gamelan in a village near Sukawati, Bali after the Cremation Ceremony on 21 September 1922
Balinese gamelan being played in Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, on 23 September 2010
Sundanese Gamelan with a dancer and Wayang Golek in a hut in Cibodas Botanical Garden, West Java on 28 September 1904
A Gamelan Ensemble and Dance show party for the Regent of Preanger (Now Parahyangan) West Java, between 1880 and 1920
Sundanese Gamelan ensemble of Bandung's Regent, West Java, Dutch east Indies, between 1857 and 1890
A gamelan laras slendro Si Ketuyung (sacred gamelan), a set of gamelan instruments made in 1748, a legacy of Sultan Sepuh IV, Keraton Kasepuhan, Cirebon, Indonesia
Gamelan Degung Ensemble, This photo was taken at Annual Exhibition in Java. between 1910 and 1930
Sundanese Gamelan Degung Performance from West Java, Indonesia, on 6 November 2007
Sekaten, Gamelan Sekaten Kanjeng Kiai Guntur Madu (One of Some Javanese Sacred Gamelan) is usually beaten every day for a week during the Sekaten celebration at the Keraton Yogyakarta. The community was very enthusiastic about listening to the strains of the heirloom gamelan, on 26 November 2017
Melasti, a self-purification ceremony to welcome Nyepi by all Hindus in Bali. This ceremony is held on the beach with the aim of purifying oneself from all bad deeds.
Galungan, a Balinese holiday celebrating the victory of dharma over adharma in Besakih temple complex in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia
Tingalan Dalem Jumenengan, The 40th Royal coronations anniversary of Susoehoenan Pakubuwono X in Surakarta Sunanate.
Ngaben, the Hindu funeral ceremony of Bali, Indonesia. It is performed to release the soul of a dead person.
Wedding Ceremony, Javanese Wedding ceremony in Java
Legong, Legong Kraton Dance (Legong of the Palace) in Ubud Palace, Bali, Indonesia. In the background, the Gamelan orchestra accompanies the performance, on 23 August 2008
Bedhaya dance performance at the wedding of Hoesein Djajadiningrat and Partini in the palace of Prang Wedono (Mangkoe Negoro VII), the father of the bride, at Solo, Java, in January 1921
Jaipong, The Sundanese Jaipongan Langit Biru dance performance in West Java Pavilion, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Balinese Ramayana dance drama, performed in Sarasvati Garden in Ubud, Bali
King Duryodana in Wayang wong performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet Performance near Prambanan Temple complex in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
thumb|Dalang (Puppet master), Sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and Wiyaga (Gamelan musicians) in Wayang Kulit Show in Java
thumb|Wayang Golek Performance in Yogyakarta
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kethoprak (Javanese popular drama depicting legends, historical or pseudo-historical events). Performance by Kethoprak Tobong Kelana Bhakti Budaya, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Ludruk performance, East Java, Indonesia
Sandiwara performance, West Java, Indonesia
thumb|javanese poetry, Sindhens performance with Gamelan Ensemble on a ceremony in Java, Indonesia, on 5 November 2015
tembang sunda, Sundanase singer sings Sundanese song in a festival
Campursari performance by Didi kempot
Balinese women gamelan Gong Kebyar in Balinese Cultural Festival, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, on 17 June 2013
Gamelan performance at Borobudur International Performances and Art Festival 2018
Gamelan players at Balinese art festival 2018
Kyai Barleyan, a Javanese gamelan at Oberlin College in Ohio. Acquired in 1970, it is believed to be the third-oldest gamelan in use in the United States.
Gamelan Son of Lion, a Javanese-style iron American gamelan based in New York City that is devoted to new music, playing in a loft in SoHo, Manhattan, United States in 2007
Sundanese Gamelan Degung being played in Museo Nacional de las Culturas Mexico, Indra Swara Gamelan Group, on 2 April 2018
Golek Ayun-Ayun Dance performance accompanied by Gamelan Ensemble at Bangsal Sri Manganti Keraton Yogyakarta.
The Sundanese Jaipongan dance performance accompanied by Gamelan Ensemble in West Java Pavilion, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta.
Gamelan ensemble (or gambelan in Balinese term) accompanying barong performance (Bali lion dance) at Garuda Wisnu Kencana cultural complex, Bali, Indonesia.
Telek (masked) dance accompanied by Gamelan ensemble in Bali, between 1950 and 1957.
Wayang wong performance accompanied by Gamelan in Java, between 1890 and 1916.
A gamelan ensemble consisting of children in a temple complex in Bali, between 1910 and 1920.
Children practiced dance with gamelan at Kebun Dalem Semarang, Dutch east Indies, circa 1867.
A gamelan set in an exhibition at the museum of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences (Now, National Museum of Indonesia), Batavia, circa 1896.
Gamelan Kaduk Manis Rengga (sacred gamelan) from Kraton Surakarta, Java, 2003.
A wayang klithik (flat woodden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Gamelan Sekati (One of Some Javanese Sacred Gamelan in the Keraton Yogyakarta) is being played to accompany Sekaten Ceremony in front of Kauman Great Mosque in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 27 April 2004.
Gamelan Nyi Asep Mangsa, Indra Swara, México, on 27 March 2015.
A Gamelan Ensemble accompanies Wayang Kulit Show (the Indonesian Shadow Play) in Java, circa 1870.

Gamelan (ꦒꦩꦼꦭꦤ꧀, ᮌᮙᮨᮜᮔ᮪, ) is the traditional ensemble music of the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese peoples of Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.

The nomination builds on the archaeological connection to the Borobudur, and includes a focus on its role in fostering a sense of national identity and pride, in addition to wellbeing aspects such as mental health, the development of interpersonal skills and the connection between its cosmology and an ethics of mutual respect and care.

The instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire.

Buddha in an open stupa and the main stupa of Borobudur in the background.

Candi of Indonesia

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Buddha in an open stupa and the main stupa of Borobudur in the background.
Prambanan temple compound. The towering candi prasada (temple towers) are believed to represent the cosmic Mount Meru, the abode of gods.
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
The Shiva temple Candi Prambanan consist of three ascending realms, temple's base (Bhurloka), body (Bhurvaloka) and roof (Svarloka).
Bima temple, one of Dieng temples. It was one of the earliest temples in Java.
Interlocking andesite stone blocks forming a corbeling arch in Borobudur.
Red brick Jabung temple, dated from Majapahit period.
Traces of worn off vajralepa plaster on Sari's relief.
Kala-makara on the portal of Borobudur gates, Kala's head on top of the portal and makaras flanking either sides.
Central Javanese linga-yoni with spout decorated and supported by nāga serpent, Yogyakarta 9th century.
Rama killing evil giant, bas-relief of Ramayana on Prambanan temple, Central Java style.
Hanuman battling enemy, bas-relief of Ramayana on Penataran temple, East Java style.
Kinnara (male), Kinnari (female), Apsara, and Devata guarding Kalpataru, the divine tree of life. 8th century Pawon temple, Java, Indonesia.
A Bodhisattva flanked by two Taras in Sewu temple.
A Devata flanked by two apsaras in Prambanan temple.
One of dvarapala statues guarding Sewu temple.
Lion guardian of Borobudur.
Bell-shaped perforated stupas of Borobudur.
Prambanan vajra pinnacle.
Map showing the location of the main sites of the so-called "Indonesian classical period" or Hindu-Buddhist period. Black dots represent Hindu sites and red dots Buddhist sites.
Cangkuang, Garut West Java
Arjuna group of Dieng temples
Gedong Songo III
Borobudur
Sambisari
The Prambanan temple complex
The gate of Ratu Boko Palace compound.
Candi Barong.
Singosari
Penataran
Surowono
Jawi
Candi Brahu, Trowulan
Gunung Kawi, Bali
Biaro Bahal, North Sumatra
Blandongan, Batujaya, 2nd to 12th century, Karawang, West Java
Gumpung, Muaro Jambi, 7th-12th century, Jambi
Bojongmenje, 7th century, Rancaekek, Bandung, West Java
Cangkuang, 8th century, Leles, Garut, West Java
Candi Bima, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Puntadewa, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Arjuna, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Srikandi, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Gatotkaca, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Semar, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Gedong Songo, 7th-8th century, Ungaran
Gunung Wukir, 8th century, Muntilan
Badut temple, 8th century, Malang
Kalasan temple, 8th century, near Prambanan
Sari temple, 8th century
Lumbung, 8th century
Sewu, 8th century, Central Java
Bubrah, 8th century, part of Sewu Mandala
Gana temple, 8th century, part of Sewu Mandala
Ngawen temple, 8th century, Muntilan, Central Java
Mendut temple, 8th century, near Borobudur
Candi Gebang, 8th-9th century, Yogyakarta
Asu Temple, 8th-9th century, Sengi, Magelang
Lumbung Sengi temple, 8th-9th century, Sengi, Sawangan, Magelang
Pawon temple, 9th century, between Borobudur and Mendut
Borobudur, 9th century, Magelang, Central Java, world's largest Buddhist monument
Plaosan, 9th century
Plaosan Kidul, 9th century
Prambanan, 9th century, the largest Hindu Temple in Indonesia
Sojiwan, 9th century, near Prambanan
Banyunibo, 9th century
Sambisari, 9th century
Barong temple, 9th century
Kimpulan, 9th-10th century, Kaliurang, Yogyakarta
Morangan temple, 9th-10th century, Ngemplak, Sleman, Yogyakarta
Merak temple, 10th century, Klaten, Central Java
Ijo Temple, 10th-11th century, Yogyakarta
Belahan temple, fountain and pool, 11th century, Mount Penanggungan, Gempol, Pasuruan, East Java
Candi Gunung Gangsir, 11th century, Pasuruan, East Java
Candi Mengening, 11th century, Tampaksiring, Bali
Gunung Kawi, 11th century, Tampak Siring, Bali
Muara Takus, 11th-12th century, Riau
Bahal temple, 11th-13th century, North Sumatra
Penataran, 12th-15th century, Blitar
Kidal, 13th century, Malang
Jago, 13th century, Malang
Jawi, 13th century, Prigen, Pasuruan
Candi Plumbangan, 14th century, Blitar, East Java
Simping temple, 14th century, Sumberjati, Blitar, East Java
Candi Gayatri, 14th century, Boyolangu, Tulungagung, East Java
Brahu, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Wringin Lawang, Trowulan, 14th century
Bajang Ratu, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Tikus, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Rimbi, Jombang, 14th century
Surawana temple, Kediri, 14th century
Jabung, Paiton, Probolinggo, 14th century
Candi Pari, 14th century, Porong, Sidoarjo
Sukuh, 15th century, Karanganyar
Ceto, 15th century, Karanganyar

A candi is a Hindu or Buddhist temple in Indonesia, mostly built during the Zaman Hindu-Buddha or "Hindu-Buddhist period" between circa the 4th and 15th centuries.

Borobudur, Muara Takus and Batujaya for example are actually elaborate stupas.

Examples of non-temple candis are the Bajang Ratu and Wringin Lawang gates of Majapahit.

Austronesian peoples

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The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

Skulls representing Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's "five races" in De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa (1795). The Tahitian skull labelled "O-taheitae" represented what he called the "Malay race"
The New Physiognomy map (1889) printed by the Fowler & Wells Company depicting Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's five human races. The region inhabited by the "Malay race" is shown enclosed in dotted lines. Like in most 19th century sources, Islander Melanesians are excluded. Taiwan, which was annexed by the Qing Dynasty in the 17th century is also excluded.
Distribution of the Austronesian languages (Blust, 1999)
Paraw sailboats from Boracay, Philippines. Outrigger canoes and crab claw sails are hallmarks of the Austronesian maritime culture.
Coconuts in Rangiroa island in the Tuamotus, French Polynesia, a typical island landscape in Austronesia. Coconuts are native to tropical Asia, and were spread as canoe plants to the Pacific Islands and Madagascar by Austronesians.
Extent of contemporary Austronesia and possible further migrations and contact (Blench, 2009)
Map showing the distribution of the Austronesian language family (light rose pink). It roughly corresponds to the distribution of all the Austronesian peoples.
Samoan man carrying two containers over his shoulder
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
Representation of the coastal migration model, with the indication of the later development of mitochondrial haplogroups
Coastlines of Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Australia during the last glacial period
Aeta fishermen in an outrigger canoe in Luzon, Philippines (c. 1899)
Possible language family homelands and the spread of rice into Southeast Asia (ca. 5,500–2,500 BP). The approximate coastlines during the early Holocene are shown in lighter blue.
Yue statue of a tattooed Baiyue man in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum (c. 3rd century BCE)
Suggested early migration route of early Austronesians into and out of Taiwan based on ancient and modern mtDNA data. This hypothesis assumes the Sino-Austronesian grouping, a minority view among linguists. (Ko et al., 2014)
Proposed routes of Austroasiatic and Austronesian migrations into Indonesia (Simanjuntak, 2017)
Proposed genesis of Daic languages and their relation with Austronesians (Blench, 2018)
Early waves of migration to Taiwan proposed by Roger Blench (2014)
Colorized photograph of a Tsou warrior from Taiwan wearing traditional clothing (pre-World War II)
Map showing the migration of the Austronesians
Hōkūlea, a modern replica of a Polynesian double-hulled voyaging canoe, is an example of a catamaran, another of the early sailing innovations of Austronesians
Proposed migration waves from Sundaland in the Late Pleistocene based on mtDNA data; and later "back-migrations" into Island Southeast Asia during the early to mid-Holocene expansion of rice-farming Austronesians from mainland southern China. The extent of the coastlines of Sundaland during the last ice age is presented in light shading; while modern coastlines after the rise of sea levels in the Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene is in dark shading. (Brandão et al., 2016)
Queen Liliuokalani, the last sovereign monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Aboriginal Taiwanese Architecture
Sama-Bajau villages are typically built directly on shallow water
The raised bale houses of the Ifugao people with capped house posts are believed to be derived from the designs of traditional granaries
Tongkonan houses of the Toraja people with the distinctive saddleback roofs reminiscent of boats
Bai meeting house of the Palauan people with colourfully decorated gables
Māori pataka storehouses
Cast of a Lapita red-slipped earthenware shard from the Santa Cruz Islands (c. 1000 BCE), showing dentate-stamped, circle-stamped, and cross-in-circle decorations. The latter two are shared elements from Neolithic red-slipped pottery from the Nagsabaran Site in the Philippines.
Māori hei matau jade pendant
Hand stencils in the "Tree of Life" cave painting in Gua Tewet, Kalimantan, Indonesia
Watu Molindo ("the entertainer stone"), one of the megaliths in Bada Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, usually found near megalithic stone vats known as kalamba.
Toraja megaliths memorializing the deceased in Sulawesi, Indonesia
Boats and human figures in a cave painting in the Niah National Park of Sarawak, Malaysia; an example of the Austronesian Painting Traditions (APT)
Petroglyphs in Vanuatu with the concentric circles and swirling designs characteristic of the Austronesian Engraving Style (AES)
Haligi pillars from the Latte period of Guam, these served as supports for raised buildings
The ruins of Nan Madol, a stone city built on artificial islets in Pohnpei
A rai stone, large stone discs used as currency in Yap
A marae sacred site in Raiatea, French Polynesia
Hawaiian petroglyph depicting a poi dog (īlio)
Carving of Rongo, the Māori deity (atua) of kūmara, from Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand
A 1782 illustration of a heiau temple in Hawaii
Elder Tayal women from Taiwan with facial tattoos
Teeth filing on a Mentawai man in the Mentawai Islands, Dutch East Indies, c. 1938
Tablet B of rongorongo, an undeciphered system of glyphs from Rapa Nui
An example of the abundant petroglyphs in Orongo, Rapa Nui associated with the tangata manu cult of Makemake. Rongorongo does not appear in any of these petroglyphs.
The Talang Tuo inscription, a 7th-century Srivijaya stele featuring Old Malay written in a derivative of the Pallava script
Page from Doctrina Cristiana Española Y Tagala (1593) featuring the Baybayin script alongside the Latin alphabet
Wharenui meeting house of the Māori people
Besakana of the Merina people
Bahay kubo of the Filipinos. Also known as Payag in Visayan.
Bure of the Fijian people
Uma mbatangu of the Sumba people
Jabu of the Toba Batak people
Rumoh of the Acehnese people
Rumah gadang of the Minangkabau people
Torogan of the Maranao people
Kubing jaw harps, flutes, and a kagul slit drum from the Philippines
Karinding jaw harps of the Sundanese people, Indonesia
Sapeh, traditional lutes of the Orang Ulu people of Malaysia
Atingting kon, wooden slit drums from Vanuatu
An Indonesian gamelan ensemble
A kanaka maoli (native) from Hawaii performing the hula
Kapa haka of the Māori people
Traditional song and dance at a funeral in Tana Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet, traditional theatre dance from Java, Indonesia
Gending Sriwijaya, traditional dance from Palembang, Indonesia
A Minahasan Kabasaran war dancer from Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Kecak dancers from Bali, Indonesia
Hudoq, traditional dance from Kalimantan, Indonesia
Aloalo funerary pole of the Sakalava people of Madagascar
Adu zatua ancestor carvings of the Nias people of western Indonesia
Taotao carvings of anito ancestor spirits from the Ifugao people, Philippines
Stone tiki from Hiva Oa, Marquesas
Ki'i carving at Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau, Hawaii
Māori poupou from the Ruato tomb of Rotorua
Moai in Ahu Tongariki, Rapa Nui
Toraja tau tau (wooden statue of the deceased) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Balinese small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestors in Bali, Indonesia

In Indonesia, the nationalistic term Nusantara from the Old Javanese is also popularly used for their islands.

The adoption of Hindu statecraft model allowed the creation of Indianized kingdoms such as Tarumanagara, Champa, Butuan, Langkasuka, Melayu, Srivijaya, Medang Mataram, Majapahit, and Bali.

Indirect evidence of traditional Austronesian architecture, however, can be gleaned from their contemporary representations in art, like in friezes on the walls of later Hindu-Buddhist stone temples (like in reliefs in Borobudur and Prambanan).