Boron

Bboron-10 10 Bboro 11 Bboron chemistryboron-11 14 B 8 BAluminium pentacosaboride
Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5.wikipedia
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Metalloid

metalloidsMetallicmetalloid staircase
Elemental boron is a metalloid that is found in small amounts in meteoroids but chemically uncombined boron is not otherwise found naturally on Earth.
The six commonly recognised metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium.

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5.
The next three elements (lithium, beryllium and boron) were formed mostly by cosmic ray spallation, and are thus rarer than heavier elements.

Allotropes of boron

α-rhombihedral crystalallotrope of boronBoron
Several allotropes of boron exist: amorphous boron is a brown powder; crystalline boron is silvery to black, extremely hard (about 9.5 on the Mohs scale), and a poor electrical conductor at room temperature.
Boron can be prepared in several crystalline and amorphous forms.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5.

Borate

boratesBOborate anion
In biology, borates have low toxicity in mammals (similar to table salt), but are more toxic to arthropods and are used as insecticides.
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-oxygen compounds usually containing oxyanions.

Boric acid

boracic acidH 3 BO 3 B(OH)
Boric acid is mildly antimicrobial, and several natural boron-containing organic antibiotics are known. Boron is an essential plant nutrient and boron compounds such as borax and boric acid are used as fertilizers in agriculture, although it's only required in small amounts, with excess being toxic.
Boric acid, also called hydrogen borate, boracic acid, and orthoboric acid is a weak, monobasic Lewis acid of boron.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
A small amount of boron is used as a dopant in semiconductors, and reagent intermediates in the synthesis of organic fine chemicals.
The conductivity of silicon is increased by adding a small amount (of the order of 1 in 10 8 ) of pentavalent (antimony, phosphorus, or arsenic) or trivalent (boron, gallium, indium) atoms.

Cosmic ray spallation

Spallationcosmic rayspallation reactions
Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in the Solar system and in the Earth's crust.
Cosmic ray spallation is thought to be responsible for the abundance in the universe of some light elements such as lithium, beryllium, helium-3, and boron.

Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry DavyDavySir Humphry Davy, Bt
Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 1778 – 29 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

Boride

However, the product is almost always contaminated with borides of those metals.
A boride is a compound between boron and a less electronegative element, for example silicon boride (SiB 3 and SiB 6 ).

Diborane

boron hydrideB 2 H 6 borane
Ultrapure boron for use in the semiconductor industry is produced by the decomposition of diborane at high temperatures and then further purified by the zone melting or Czochralski processes.
Diborane(6), generally known as diborane is the chemical compound consisting of boron and hydrogen with the formula B 2 H 6.

Aluminium

aluminumAlall-metal
The earliest routes to elemental boron involved the reduction of boric oxide with metals such as magnesium or aluminium. The chemical behavior of boron resembles that of silicon more than aluminium.
Such an electron configuration is shared with the other well-characterized members of its group, boron, gallium, indium, and thallium; it is also expected for nihonium.

Borospherene

Compressing boron above 160 GPa produces a boron phase with an as yet unknown structure, and this phase is a superconductor at temperatures 6–12 K. Borospherene (fullerene-like B 40 ) molecules) and borophene (proposed graphene-like structure) have been described in 2014.
Borospherene (B 40 ) is a cluster molecule containing 40 boron atoms.

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
The chemical behavior of boron resembles that of silicon more than aluminium.
Its melting and boiling points of 1414 °C and 3265 °C respectively are the second-highest among all the metalloids and nonmetals, being only surpassed by boron.

Boron group

group 1313group III
Boron is the prototype for the boron group (the IUPAC group 13), although the other members of this group are metals and more typical p-elements (only aluminium to some extent shares boron's aversion to the octet rule).
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).

Borophene

Compressing boron above 160 GPa produces a boron phase with an as yet unknown structure, and this phase is a superconductor at temperatures 6–12 K. Borospherene (fullerene-like B 40 ) molecules) and borophene (proposed graphene-like structure) have been described in 2014.
Borophene is a crystalline atomic monolayer of boron, i.e., it is a two-dimensional allotrope of boron and also known as boron sheet.

Fertilizer

fertiliserfertilizersnitrogen fertilizer
Boron is an essential plant nutrient and boron compounds such as borax and boric acid are used as fertilizers in agriculture, although it's only required in small amounts, with excess being toxic.
For example, sugar beets appear to require boron, and legumes require cobalt, while environmental conditions such as heat or drought make boron less available for plants.

Boron nitride

cubic boron nitridehexagonal boron nitrideBoron nitride nanotube
The boron nitrides are notable for the variety of structures that they adopt.
Boron nitride is a thermally and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN.

Boron trifluoride

BF 3 trifluoroboraneBF 3 etherate
For example, fluoride (F − ) and boron trifluoride (BF 3 ) combined to give the tetrafluoroborate anion, BF 4 −.
It is a useful Lewis acid and a versatile building block for other boron compounds.

Boron carbide

B 4 C 10 B 4 Cboron
Organoboron chemicals have been employed in uses as diverse as boron carbide (see below), a complex very hard ceramic composed of boron-carbon cluster anions and cations, to carboranes, carbon-boron cluster chemistry compounds that can be halogenated to form reactive structures including carborane acid, a superacid.
Boron carbide (chemical formula approximately B 4 C) is an extremely hard boron–carbon ceramic and covalent material used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, engine sabotage powders,

Carborane

carboranesboron-containing ringscarbo-borane
Organoboron chemicals have been employed in uses as diverse as boron carbide (see below), a complex very hard ceramic composed of boron-carbon cluster anions and cations, to carboranes, carbon-boron cluster chemistry compounds that can be halogenated to form reactive structures including carborane acid, a superacid.
Carboranes are electron-delocalized (non-classically bonded) clusters composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms that may also contain other metallic and nonmetallic elements in the cluster framework.

Cluster chemistry

clusterclusterscluster compound
Organoboron chemicals have been employed in uses as diverse as boron carbide (see below), a complex very hard ceramic composed of boron-carbon cluster anions and cations, to carboranes, carbon-boron cluster chemistry compounds that can be halogenated to form reactive structures including carborane acid, a superacid.
For example, carbon and boron atoms form fullerene and borane clusters, respectively.

Fiberglass

fibreglassglass-reinforced plasticGRP
About half of all boron consumed globally is an additive in fiberglass for insulation and structural materials.
It now makes up most of the fiberglass production in the world, and also is the single largest consumer of boron minerals globally.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
Pure boron can be prepared by reducing volatile boron halides with hydrogen at high temperatures.
This function is particularly common in group 13 elements, especially in boranes (boron hydrides) and aluminium complexes, as well as in clustered carboranes.

Calcium hexaboride

CaB 6 calcium boride
Often the boron in borides has fractional oxidation states, such as −1/3 in calcium hexaboride (CaB 6 ).
Calcium hexaboride (sometimes calcium boride) is a compound of calcium and boron with the chemical formula CaB 6.