Boron

Bboron-10 10 Bboro 11 Bboron chemistryboron-11 14 B 8 BAluminium pentacosaboride
Boron is a chemical element with the symbol B and atomic number 5.wikipedia
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Group (periodic table)

groupgroupsChemical series
Boron is the prototype for the boron group (the IUPAC group 13), although the other members of this group are metals and more typical p-elements (only aluminium to some extent shares boron's aversion to the octet rule).

Cosmic ray

cosmic rayscosmic radiationcosmic-ray
One of the difficulties in dealing with cosmic rays, which are mostly high energy protons, is that some secondary radiation from interaction of cosmic rays and spacecraft materials is high energy spallation neutrons.
The remaining fraction is made up of the other heavier nuclei that are typical nucleosynthesis end products, primarily lithium, beryllium, and boron.

Diamond

diamondsdiamond miningindustrial diamond
Examples are the plasma deposition of boron-containing hard carbon films, silicon nitride-boron nitride films, and for doping of diamond film with boron.
Because the arrangement of atoms in diamond is extremely rigid, few types of impurity can contaminate it (two exceptions being boron and nitrogen).

Glass fiber

glass fibreE-glassglass
The rise in global demand has been driven by high growth rates in glass fiber, fiberglass and borosilicate glassware production.
It now makes up most of the fiberglass production in the world, and also is the single largest consumer of boron minerals globally.

Neodymium magnet

neodymium magnetsneodymiumSupermagnet
Boron is a component of neodymium magnets (Nd 2 Fe 14 B), which are among the strongest type of permanent magnet.
A neodymium magnet (also known as NdFeB, NIB or Neo magnet), the most widely used type of rare-earth magnet, is a permanent magnet made from an alloy of neodymium, iron and boron to form the Nd 2 Fe 14 B tetragonal crystalline structure.

Francis Marion Smith

Borax" SmithFrancis "Borax" SmithFrancis Marion "Borax" Smith
Boron compounds were relatively rarely used until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized and produced them in volume at low cost.

Halo nucleus

nuclear halohalo nucleihalo-nuclei
The exotic 17 B exhibits a nuclear halo, i.e. its radius is appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.
A two-neutron halo is exhibited by 6 He, 11 Li, 17 B, 19 B and 22 C.

Heterodiamond

c-BC 2 N
Heterodiamond (also called BCN) is another diamond-like boron compound.
Heterodiamond is a superhard material containing boron, carbon, and nitrogen (BCN).

Rhenium diboride

ReB 2 RhB 2 rhenium boride
For example, rhenium diboride can be produced at ambient pressures, but is rather expensive because of rhenium.
The compound is formed from a mixture of rhenium, noted for its resistance to high pressure, and boron, which forms short, strong covalent bonds with rhenium.

Graphite

graphiticblack leadplumbago
In this material, the boron centers are trigonal planar with an extra double bond for each boron, forming sheets akin to the carbon in graphite.
Care must be taken that reactor-grade graphite is free of neutron absorbing materials such as boron, widely used as the seed electrode in commercial graphite deposition systems – this caused the failure of the Germans' World War II graphite-based nuclear reactors.

Nuclear reactor

nuclear reactorsreactorreactors
Boron shielding is used as a control for nuclear reactors, taking advantage of its high cross-section for neutron capture.
These systems insert large amounts of poison (often boron in the form of boric acid) into the reactor to shut the fission reaction down if unsafe conditions are detected or anticipated.

Colemanite

Economically important sources of boron are the minerals colemanite, rasorite (kernite), ulexite and tincal.
Colemanite is an important ore of boron, and was the most important boron ore until the discovery of kernite in 1926.

Polyvinyl acetate

PVAPVA glueglue
In alkaline conditions, boron compounds such as boric acid or borax cause the polyvinyl alcohol to cross-link, forming tackifying precipitates or toys, such as Slime and Flubber.

Radiation hardening

radiation-hardenedradiation hardenedradiation hardness
In radiation-hardened semiconductor designs, one countermeasure is to use depleted boron, which is greatly enriched in 11 B and contains almost no 10 B. This is useful because 11 B is largely immune to radiation damage.
Shielding the chips themselves by use of depleted boron (consisting only of isotope boron-11) in the borophosphosilicate glass passivation layer protecting the chips, as naturally prevalent boron-10 readily captures neutrons and undergoes alpha decay (see soft error).

Doping (semiconductor)

dopingdopeddope
Examples are the plasma deposition of boron-containing hard carbon films, silicon nitride-boron nitride films, and for doping of diamond film with boron.
For example, the E B for boron in silicon bulk is 0.045 eV, compared with silicon's band gap of about 1.12 eV.

Zirconium diboride

Zirconium boride
Its value is comparable to that of tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, titanium diboride or zirconium diboride.
ZrB 2 can be synthesized by stoichiometric reaction between constituent elements, in this case Zr and B.

Organoboron chemistry

organoboraneorganoboronorganoboron compound
Elemental boron, boron oxide, boric acid, borates, and many organoboron compounds are relatively nontoxic to humans and animals (with toxicity similar to that of table salt).
Organoborane or organoboron compounds are chemical compounds of boron and carbon that are organic derivatives of BH 3, for example trialkyl boranes.

Nuclear reaction

nuclear reactionsnuclearreaction
The neutrons, however, trigger energetic and short-range secondary alpha particle and lithium-7 heavy ion radiation that are products of the boron + neutron nuclear reaction, and this ion radiation additionally bombards the tumor, especially from inside the tumor cells.

Silicon carbide

carborundumSiCSiC-MOSFET
Its value is comparable to that of tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, titanium diboride or zirconium diboride.
Silicon carbide is a semiconductor, which can be doped n-type by nitrogen or phosphorus and p-type by beryllium, boron, aluminium, or gallium.

Lithium

Lilithium ionLi +
Those neutrons will be captured in 10 B, if it is present in the spacecraft's semiconductors, producing a gamma ray, an alpha particle, and a lithium ion.
These can also include small amounts of boron, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, manganese, and iron.

Boranes

boron hydridesboraneboron
The boranes (boron hydrogen compounds) and similar gaseous compounds are quite poisonous.
Boranes is the name given to the class of synthetic hydrides of boron with generic formula B x H y.

Pyrex

borosilicate glassPyrex glassheat resistant glass
Schott AG's "Duran" and Owens-Corning's trademarked Pyrex are two major brand names for this glass, used both in laboratory glassware and in consumer cookware and bakeware, chiefly for this resistance.
According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, borosilicate Pyrex is composed of (as percentage of weight): 4.0% boron, 54.0% oxygen, 2.8% sodium, 1.1% aluminum, 37.7% silicon, and 0.3% potassium.

Neutron cross section

cross sectionneutron cross-sectioncross sections
The 10 B isotope is useful for capturing thermal neutrons (see neutron cross section#Typical cross sections).

Fishing rod

rodfishing polefly rod
Boron fibers (boron filaments) are high-strength, lightweight materials that are used chiefly for advanced aerospace structures as a component of composite materials, as well as limited production consumer and sporting goods such as golf clubs and fishing rods.
Boron and Graphite rods came around in the 1960s and 1970s when the United States and United Kingdom invested considerable research into developing the new technologies.

Titanium diboride

titanium borideTiB 2
Its value is comparable to that of tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, titanium diboride or zirconium diboride.
Titanium diboride powder can be prepared by a variety of high-temperature methods, such as the direct reactions of titanium or its oxides/hydrides, with elemental boron over 1000 °C, carbothermal reduction by thermite reaction of titanium oxide and boron oxide, or hydrogen reduction of boron halides in the presence of the metal or its halides.