parliamentary boroughBorough Councilboroughscouncilborough constituenciesBorough CouncilsBuroughFree Boroughparliamentary burghs-borough
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.wikipedia
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Boroughs of New York City

boroughboroughsfive boroughs
However, in some cities it is a subdivision of the city (for example, New York City, London, and Montreal).
New York City encompasses five county-level administrative divisions called boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island.


StrassburgStraßburgStrasbourg, France
The incidence of these words as suffixes to place names (for example, Aldeburgh, Bamburgh, Tilbury, Tilburg, Strasbourg (Strossburi in the local dialect), Luxembourg, Edinburgh, Grundisburgh, Hamburg, Gothenburg) usually indicates that they were once fortified settlements.
The modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata ("paved road"), while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz ("hill fort, fortress").


A number of other European languages have cognate words that were borrowed from the Germanic languages during the Middle Ages, including brog in Irish, bwr or bwrc, meaning "wall, rampart" in Welsh, bourg in French, burg in Catalan (in Catalonia there is a town named Burg), borgo in Italian, burgo in Portuguese and Castilian (hence the place-name Burgos), the -bork of Lębork and Malbork in Polish and the -bor of Maribor in Slovenian.
Borgo is an Italian word (plural borghi), cognate with English borough, German Burg, French bourg, that usually means the new town outside the walls of an old town (the paese).


-burydefensive workBurg
Alfred set up a system of defensive strong points (Burhs); in order to maintain these particular settlements, he granted them a degree of autonomy.
They are cognate with German Burg and Scandinavian borg and, in English, developed variously as "borough", "burg", and (particularly in the East Anglian region of England and Scotland) "burgh".

List of boroughs in Quebec

Boroughboroughsboroughs in Quebec
See List of boroughs in Quebec.
This is a list of boroughs (arrondissements) in Quebec.

East York

East York, OntarioEast York, TorontoBorough of East York
The Borough of East York was the last Toronto municipality to hold this status, relinquishing it upon becoming part of the City of Toronto government on January 1, 1998.
From 1967 to 1998, it was officially the Borough of East York, a semi-autonomous borough within the upper-tier municipality of Metropolitan Toronto.

Alfred the Great

King AlfredAlfredKing Alfred the Great
The use of the word borough probably derives from the burghal system of Alfred the Great.
Alfred's burhs (later termed boroughs) ranged from former Roman towns, such as Winchester, where the stone walls were repaired and ditches added, to massive earthen walls surrounded by wide ditches, probably reinforced with wooden revetments and palisades, such as at Burpham in West Sussex.


Clonmel Borough CouncilBorough District of ClonmelClonmel Post Office
There are four borough districts designated by the Local Government Reform Act 2014: Clonmel, Drogheda, Sligo, and Wexford.
Under a charter granted by James I of England, Clonmel became a Free Borough on 5 July 1608, and the Mayor and officers of the town were granted power to "name, elect and constitute one Swordbearer and three Sergeants-at-Mace".

County borough

county boroughsCounty Borough CouncilCounty
Under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, six of these became county boroughs: Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Derry, Limerick and Waterford.
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (excluding Scotland), to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control.

Administrative division

Subdivisionssubdivisionadministrative district
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.

Borough of Queenscliffe

QueenscliffeQueenscliffe BoroughQueenscliffe, Victoria
In Australia, a borough was once a self-governing small town, but this designation has all but vanished, except for the only remaining borough in the country, which is the Borough of Queenscliffe.
Queenscliffe is the last borough remaining in both Victoria and all of Australia and was the only LGA not to have been subject to changes to its boundaries and/or name in the Victorian local government restructure which took place between 1993 and 1995.

City status in Ireland

cityList of cities in Irelandcities
Kilkenny had previously had a borough council, but its district was to be called the Municipal District of Kilkenny City, in recognition of its historic city status.
It carried more prestige than the alternative municipal titles "borough", "town" and "township", but gave no extra legal powers.

Local electoral area

municipal districtlocal electoral areasLEA
A local boundary review reporting in 2018 proposed granting borough status to any district containing a census town with a population over 30,000; this would have included the towns of Dundalk, Bray, and Navan.
A district associated with a city or borough is termed a metropolitan district or borough district respectively.

Metropolitan Toronto

Metro TorontoMetro Toronto CouncilMunicipality of Metropolitan Toronto
It was previously used in Metropolitan Toronto, Ontario, to denote suburban municipalities including Scarborough, York, North York, Etobicoke prior to their conversion into cities.
This left the City of Toronto and the five townships, which at this time were re-designated as boroughs (all but East York were later incorporated as cities).

Neve Monosson

Neve Monosson, IsraelNeveh Monossohn
However, no borough was actually created under law until 2005–2006, when Neve Monosson and Maccabim-Re'ut, both communal settlements (Heb: yishuv kehilati) founded in 1953 and 1984, respectively, were declared to be autonomous municipal boroughs (Heb: vaad rova ironi), within their mergers with the towns of Yehud and Modi'in.
Neve Monosson, also known as Neve Efraim and Neve Efraim Monosson, commonly called Monosson by its residents, is a communal settlement in central Israel with the autonomous status of a municipal borough within the joint municipality of Yehud-Monosson.


Drogheda, IrelandDrogheda TownColp
There are four borough districts designated by the Local Government Reform Act 2014: Clonmel, Drogheda, Sligo, and Wexford.
Drogheda Borough Council is an elected local government body which is mandated under the Local Government Act 2001 to provide civic leadership and a forum for the democratic representation of the community.

Point Fortin

Point Fortin Borough CorporationBorough of Point FortinGuapo
Point Fortin, officially the Republic Borough of Point Fortin, the smallest Borough in Trinidad and Tobago is located in southwestern Trinidad, about 32 km southwest of San Fernando, in the historic county of Saint Patrick.

Municipal Corporations Act 1835

Municipal Corporations ActMunicipal Reform Act 1835Municipal Reform Act
This resulted in a regularisation of municipal government (Municipal Corporations Act 1835).
IV., c.76), sometimes known as the Municipal Reform Act, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reformed local government in the incorporated boroughs of England and Wales.

Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898

1898Local Government ActLocal Government Act 1898
Under the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, six of these became county boroughs: Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Derry, Limerick and Waterford.
The 1898 Act brought in a mixed system of government, with County Boroughs independent of county administration, and elsewhere a two-tier system with county councils, along with Borough, Urban District and Rural District Councils.

Reform Act 1832

Great Reform ActReform Act of 1832Reform Act
Debates on the Reform Bill (eventually the Reform Act 1832) had highlighted the variations in systems of governance of towns, and a Royal Commission was set up to investigate the issue.
Before the reform, most members nominally represented boroughs.


Chaguanas, Trinidad and TobagoBorough of ChaguanasChaguanas Borough Corporation
Chaguanas became a borough in 1990; prior to that it was part of the Caroni County.

Rotten and pocket boroughs

rotten boroughpocket boroughrotten boroughs
After the Reform Act, which disenfranchised many of the rotten boroughs (boroughs that had declined in importance, had only a small population, and had only a handful of eligible voters), parliamentary constituencies began to diverge from the ancient boroughs.
A rotten or pocket borough, also known as a nomination borough or proprietorial borough, was a parliamentary borough or constituency in England, Great Britain, or the United Kingdom before the Reform Act 1832, which had a very small electorate and could be used by a patron to gain unrepresentative influence within the unreformed House of Commons.

Charter trustees

Charter TrusteeCharter Trustees Act 1985East Retford Charter trustees
In smaller boroughs, a town council was formed for the area of the abolished borough, while charter trustees were formed in other former boroughs.
Originally, under section 246(7), when the district in which a town for which charter trustees had been established gained the status of a borough, the trustees would be immediately dissolved.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom

Privy CouncilPCPrivy Counsellor
Districts may apply to the British Crown for the grant of borough status upon advice of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.
The Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, and city or borough status to local authorities.

Local government

local authoritylocal authoritiesLeadership
In the United States, a borough is a unit of local government below the level of the state.
Common names for local government entities include state, province, region, department, county, prefecture, district, city, township, town, borough, parish, municipality, shire, village, and local service district.