A report on Bosnian War

Clockwise from left:
1. The Executive Council Building burns after being hit by tank fire in Sarajevo.
2. May 1992; Ratko Mladić with Army of Republika Srpska officers.
3. A Norwegian UN peacekeeper in Sarajevo.
Ethnic map of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991
Serbian Autonomous Oblasts in November 1991
Carrington-Cutillero plan: Serbian cantons shown in red, Bosniak cantons in green, Croat cantons in blue
Alija Izetbegović during his visit to the United States in 1997
A victim of a mortar attack delivered to a Sarajevo hospital in 1992
Goran Jelisić shooting a Bosnian Muslim in Brčko in 1992
Model of the Čelebići camp, near Konjic, presented as evidence in the Mucić et al. trial
Map of Operation Corridor 92, fought between the VRS and the HV-HVO
Bodies of people killed in April 1993 around Vitez.
Novi Travnik in 1993, during the Croat–Bosniak War
Aerial photograph of destroyed buildings in Mostar
The front lines in the Lašva Valley in 1993 between the ARBiH and the HVO, including Novi Travnik, Vitez and Busovača
Damaged buildings in Grbavica during the Siege of Sarajevo
UN troops on their way up "Sniper Alley" in Sarajevo
Bosnia and Herzegovina before the Dayton Agreement
Seated from left to right: Slobodan Milošević, Alija Izetbegović and Franjo Tuđman signing the final peace agreement in Paris on 14 December 1995.
A grave digger at a cemetery in Sarajevo, 1992
Bosnia and Herzegovina: Percent Change of Ethnic Bosniaks from 1991 to 2013
Ethnic distribution at the municipal level in Bosnia and Herzegovina before (1991) and after the war (1998)
The cemetery at the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial and Cemetery to Genocide Victims
Exhumations in Srebrenica, 1996
The skull of a victim of the July 1995 Srebrenica massacre in an exhumed mass grave outside of Potočari, 2007
Mourners at the reburial ceremony for an exhumed victim of the Srebrenica massacre
A cemetery in Mostar flying the flag of Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (left), the flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
First version of the Vance-Owen plan, which would have established 10 provinces
Bosniak province
Croat province
Serb province
Sarajevo district
Present-day administrative borders

International armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.

- Bosnian War
Clockwise from left:
1. The Executive Council Building burns after being hit by tank fire in Sarajevo.
2. May 1992; Ratko Mladić with Army of Republika Srpska officers.
3. A Norwegian UN peacekeeper in Sarajevo.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Country at the crossroads of south and southeast Europe, located in the Balkans.

Country at the crossroads of south and southeast Europe, located in the Balkans.

Iron Age cult carriage from Banjani, near Sokolac
Mogorjelo, ancient Roman suburban Villa Rustica from the 4th century, near Čapljina
Hval's Codex, illustrated Slavic manuscript from medieval Bosnia
Bosnia in the Middle Ages spanning the Banate of Bosnia and the succeeding Kingdom of Bosnia
Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque in Sarajevo, dating from 1531
Austro-Hungarian troops enter Sarajevo, 1878
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo, by Gavrilo Princip
"Keep/Protect Yugoslavia" (Čuvajte Jugoslaviju), a variant of the alleged last words of King Alexander I, in an illustration of Yugoslav peoples dancing the kolo
The railway bridge over the Neretva River in Jablanica, twice destroyed during the 1943 Case White offensive
Eternal flame memorial to military and civilian World War II victims in Sarajevo
Bosnia and Herzegovina's flag while part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Dissolution of Yugoslavia
The Executive Council Building burns after being struck by tank fire during the Siege of Sarajevo, 1992
Tuzla government building burning after anti-government clashes on 7 February 2014
Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), Republika Srpska (RS) and Brčko District (BD)
Estimated development of real GDP per capita of Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1952
Proportional diagram of Bosnia and Herzegovina exports as of 2019
The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo
Apron view of the Sarajevo International Airport
University of Sarajevo's Faculty of Law
National and University Library in Sarajevo
Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina headquarters in Sarajevo
Stećci from Radimlja, near Stolac (13th century)
Bosniaks dancing a traditional kolo
Serbs from Bosanska Krajina in traditional clothing
Bosnian meat platter that contains, among other things, ćevapi, which is considered the national dish of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium in Sarajevo hosted the opening ceremony of the 1984 Winter Olympics.
Edin Džeko, captain of the Bosnian national football team
Neum, Bosnian and Herzegovinan only town on the Adriatic

This was followed by the Bosnian War, which lasted until late 1995 and was brought to a close with the signing of the Dayton Agreement.

Republika Srpska

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One of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

One of the two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Welcome sign on the administrative line with the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Iron Age cult carriage from Banjani near Sokolac
Territory of Republika Srpska within the Roman Empire, 4th century
Kastel Fortress in Banja Luka, first appearing as an early Slavic hillfort or gradina
Stećak, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, on Treskavica mountain
Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, in Višegrad, founded by Ottoman Grand vizier of Serb origin Sokollu Mehmed Pasha
The Poplar of horror in the Jasenovac Memorial Site, one of the key sites in the Genocide of Serbs, in which tens of thousands of Bosnian Serb civilians were brutally killed
Territories which were controlled by Army of Republika Srpska during the war at its greatest extent (around 1993) compared with current borders
Srebrenica Genocide Memorial
A Serbian cemetery for the victims of the war in Bratunac
The National Assembly of Republika Srpska in Banja Luka
Orlovačko Lake located in Sutjeska National Park
Trebinje on the banks of the Trebišnjica
The protected area of Pliva, Janj and Janjske Otoke Reserve
Cvrcka Canyon
University of East Sarajevo, in Pale
Real GDP growth rates in Republika Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006–2014
Average net wages (in KM) in Republika Srpska 1996–2015
Interchange on the Gradiška-Banja Luka highway
Jahorina ski resort is the biggest in Bosnia and one of the biggest in the Balkans
Andrićgrad
Representative offices of Republika Srpska worldwide
Museum of Contemporary Art, Republika Srpska
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Banja Luka
Tavna Monastery, near Bijeljina
Ferhat Pasha Mosque, after it was reconstructed in 2016
The Mariastern abbey, a Trappist abbey famous for its own variety of cheese

Republika Srpska was formed in 1992 at the outset of the Bosnian War with the stated intent to safeguard the interests of the Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Clockwise from top right: remains of Stari Most in Mostar, replaced with a cable bridge; French IFOR Artillery Detachment, on patrol near Mostar; a Croat war memorial in Vitez; a Bosniak war memorial in Stari Vitez; view of Novi Travnik during the war

Croat–Bosniak War

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Conflict between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, supported by Croatia, that lasted from 18 October 1992 to 23 February 1994.

Conflict between the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, supported by Croatia, that lasted from 18 October 1992 to 23 February 1994.

Clockwise from top right: remains of Stari Most in Mostar, replaced with a cable bridge; French IFOR Artillery Detachment, on patrol near Mostar; a Croat war memorial in Vitez; a Bosniak war memorial in Stari Vitez; view of Novi Travnik during the war
Ethnic composition of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991
The 1939 Banovina of Croatia (red) within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (light yellow)
HVO, ARBiH, and HOS soldiers in Mostar, June 1992
Territorial changes from January 1993 to May 1995, also showing areas of joint HVO-ARBiH control before the start of the war
UN peacekeepers collecting corpses after the massacre in Ahmići
Bodies of people killed in April 1993 around Vitez
Damaged buildings from the fighting on the Croatian side of Mostar
Ruined bank building in Mostar
The front lines in the Lašva Valley in 1993 between the ARBiH and the HVO, including Novi Travnik, Vitez and Busovača
Frontlines near Žepče, Maglaj and Tešanj in northern Bosnia, 1993
Croatian enclave in Lepenica Valley, including Kiseljak and Kreševo
The front lines in northern and central Herzegovina in December 1993
Memorial to the people killed in Križančevo Selo
Franjo Tuđman and Alija Izetbegović signing the Washington Agreement in March 1994
French Implementation Force (IFOR) Artillery Detachment camp near Mostar in 1995
Destroyed mosque in Ahmići, April 1993
Ivo Josipović and Mustafa Cerić commemorating the Ahmići massacre.
First version of the Vance-Owen plan, which would have established 10 provinces
Bosniak province
Croat province
Serb province
Sarajevo district
Dayton Agreement border

It is often referred to as a "war within a war" because it was part of the larger Bosnian War.

Milošević in 1988

Slobodan Milošević

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Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the president of Serbia within Yugoslavia from 1989 to 1997 (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, from 1989 to 1992) and president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.

Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the president of Serbia within Yugoslavia from 1989 to 1997 (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, from 1989 to 1992) and president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.

Milošević in 1988
Milošević depicted on a mountainous terrain in 1989 with the words "Persist to pride, that's the people's wish."
Milošević signing the Dayton Accords in 1995 on behalf of the Bosnian Serb leadership, formally ending the Bosnian War
Milošević meets with US President Bill Clinton in Paris on 14 December 1995
People paying their respects in front of the Museum of Yugoslav History

Milošević played a major role in the wars, and negotiated the Dayton Agreement on behalf of Bosnian Serbs, which ended the Bosnian War in 1995.

Bosnian Army emblem

Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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The military force of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The military force of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnian Army emblem
ARBiH conscript in Visoko in 1992
The ARBiH's flag
A cemetery in Mostar flying the flag of Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (left), the flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the flag of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Supreme Command of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in central Sarajevo
T-55 tanks belonging to the 28th Division, 281st Brigade, 1st Tank Battalion, stationed in Visca.
OT M-60 Armored Personnel Carrier belonging to the 28th Division, 281st Brigade, 1st Tank Battalion, stationed in Visca.
A close-up view of an M48 76mm mountain gun belonging to the 28th Division, 281st Brigade, 1st Tank Battalion, stationed in Visca.
Main aircraft of ARBiH were the Mi-8 and Mi-17 helicopters. Here is an Mi-8T displayed to SFOR personnel during an inspection at Ćoralići Airfield.
A Bosnian Army UTVA-75 light utility aircraft displayed as an artifact at Ćoralići Airfield in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

It was established by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1992 following the outbreak of the Bosnian War.

Sarajevo

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Capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits.

Capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its administrative limits.

Sarajevo at twilight.
Sarajevo topographic map.
View of Sarajevo from a popular Yellow Bastion lookout.
Autumn in Sarajevo - Veliki Park.
A panoramic view of Sarajevo valley from "Yellow Bastion" (Žuta tabija) lookout, spring 2012.
Neolithic period Butmir vase.
Roman bridge, erected 1530 in Ilidža, built of remnants of an old Roman settlement.
The Sebilj is a pseudo-Ottoman style wooden fountain in the centre of Baščaršija square. The current structure is an 1891 reconstruction of the original, which burnt down in 1852.
Old stone bridge over the Koševski Potok (circa 1880; left), later demolished to give away space for a tram station; Ali Pasha Mosque (right).
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria arrives at the city hall on the day of his assassination, 28 June 1914.
The Latin Bridge was the site of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.
The Sarajevo Red Line, a memorial event of the Siege of Sarajevo's 20th anniversary. 11,541 empty chairs symbolized 11,541 victims of the war which were killed during the Siege.
The signing of the Dayton Agreement in Paris ended the 3 1⁄2-year-long Bosnian War.
Building of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The four municipalities of the City of Sarajevo (Stari Grad, Centar, Novo Sarajevo and Novi Grad) within the territory of Sarajevo Canton.
Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Trebević cable car taking visitors to mount Trebević from the city center.
Sarajevo Zoo.
Ethnic structure of Sarajevo by settlements, 1991.
Ethnic structure of Sarajevo by settlements, 2013.
Sarajevo tram.
Sarajevo Railway Station.
Sarajevo International Airport.
Observation deck top of Avaz Twist Tower.
Rectorate and the Faculty of Law, University of Sarajevo.
National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina houses many important historical items from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A panoramic view of the ruined castle of Bijela Tabija "White Bastion" in the very east of Sarajevo.
Copies of the Sarajevo Haggadah.
Bijelo Dugme originated in Sarajevo; widely considered to have been the most popular band ever to exist in the former Yugoslavia and one of the most important acts of the Yugoslav rock scene. Pictured are Mladen Vojičić Tifa (left) and Goran Bregović (right).
Vedran Smailović playing a cello on top of the ruins of the National library in 1992.
Sarajevo Film Festival is held annually since 1995 at the National Theatre.
Bosnian football player Edin Džeko was born in Sarajevo. He is the all-time leading goalscorer of the Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team.
Koševo City Stadium, home to FK Sarajevo, is the largest stadium in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Damir Džumhur, a Sarajevo born multi–Grand Slam tennis player.
Mirza Delibašić Hall, home venue of past European champion KK Bosna Royal.
Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque and Sarajevo Clock Tower.
Mosque courtyard.
Gazi Husrev-beg Library - Baščaršija Islamic School (Kurumlija Madrasa).
The Gazi Husrev-beg-Bazaar.
Pigeon Square.
Old Town.
Sarajevo Main Post office.
Sarajevo National Theatre design by Karel Pařík.
The Academy of Fine Arts was originally built to serve as an Evangelical Church in 1899.
Privredna banka Sarajevo.
National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina established in 1896.
Health Institute in Sarajevo.
Iconic Sarajevo Holiday Inn (now Hotel Holiday) and UNITIC World Trade Towers.
Eternal flame.
View west toward parts of Novo Sarajevo.
Residential buildings in Novi Grad.
Bosmal City Center Towers, erected 2001.
Avaz Twist Tower, erected 2008.
BBI Centar, erected 2009.
Sarajevo City Center, erected 2014.
Sarajevo cable car, reopened in 2018.
Great Park (Veliki Park).
Koševo Park.
Vilsonovo Šetalište (Wilson's Promenade) along the Miljacka.
Great Lane (Velika aleja), Ilidža.
The spring of the Bosna river is in Sarajevo.
Emperor's Mosque.
Cathedral of the Nativity of the Theotokos.
Sacred Heart Cathedral.
Sarajevo Synagogue.
Bosniak Institute, containing collections of the history of Bosnia and Bosniaks.
Museum "Sarajevo 1878–1918".
Alija Izetbegović museum.
Medieval tombstones around the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Sarajevo Tunnel Museum.
MAN Centrotrans bus.
Sarajevo City Center, erected 2014.

This was during the Bosnian War and the breakup of Yugoslavia, under nationalist ethnic passions that tore families apart and resulted in genocide and massacres.

Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

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Unrecognised geopolitical entity and proto-state in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Unrecognised geopolitical entity and proto-state in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

location of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (shown in red) within Bosnia and Herzegovina (shown in pink)
Ferdo Šišić's book from 1908 with Herceg-Bosna in the title
location of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (shown in red) within Bosnia and Herzegovina (shown in pink)
The share of Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991
location of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (shown in red) within Bosnia and Herzegovina (shown in pink)
Herzeg-Bosnia at its greatest extent
Carrington-Cutillero plan in early 1992. Serbian cantons are shown in red, Bosniak cantons shown in green, Croat cantons shown in blue.
Aerial photograph of Croatian Nobles Square in Mostar after the war, where the Government of Herzeg-Bosnia was located
BiH territory possession just before Dayton Agreement in 1995.
Croat- and Bosniak- controlled parts of the Federation in 1997
License plate of Mostar with the Coat of arms of Herzeg-Bosnia
Flag of the Croatian Defence Council (HVO)
Memorial plaque in Grude, made as a tribute to Mate Boban and leaders of Herzeg-Bosnia
Operation area of the utility company of Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia, "Elektroprivreda HZ HB", roughly corresponding with the area of Herzeg-Bosnia political and institutional control in 1995–97, has been proposed by International Crisis Group and Croatian Peasant Party as the tentative area of Croat entity.

In its proclaimed borders, Herzeg-Bosnia encompassed about 30% of the country, but did not have effective control over the entire territory as parts of it were lost to the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) at the beginning of the Bosnian War.

Clockwise from top left: 
Crashed civilian vehicle after being fired upon with small arms; UNPROFOR forces in the city; Government building hit by tank shelling; U.S. airstrike on VRS positions; Overview of the city in 1996; VRS soldiers joking around before a prisoner exchange.

Siege of Sarajevo

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Clockwise from top left: 
Crashed civilian vehicle after being fired upon with small arms; UNPROFOR forces in the city; Government building hit by tank shelling; U.S. airstrike on VRS positions; Overview of the city in 1996; VRS soldiers joking around before a prisoner exchange.
Territories controlled by Serb forces
A CIA map of the JNA attack on 2 May 1992
Dutch reporter Robert Dulmers at Hakija Turajlić's graveside, Ali Pasha Mosque, March 1993
Examples of weapons used against Sarajevans displayed at Sarajevo Tunnel Museum
Sarajevo residents collecting firewood, winter of 1992–1993
Citizens of Sarajevo in line for water
Overall view of downtown Grbavica, a suburb of Sarajevo. March 1996
The remains of the building of Sarajevo newspaper Oslobođenje, kept as a memorial for several years after the siege
A Bosnian Serb target is hit by U.S. aircraft
Bosnian Army Offensive Operations in the Sarajevo Region, 15–22 June 1995
The Martyrs' Memorial Cemetery Kovači for victims of the war in Stari Grad
Names of all victims on a wall next to Kovači Cemetery
Mezarje Stadion Cemetery, Patriotske lige, Sarajevo.
Heavily damaged apartment buildings near Vrbanja bridge in the Grbavica district on the left bank of the Miljacka river
Vedran Smailović playing in the partially destroyed National Library in Sarajevo in 1992
Destruction in Sarajevo's Dobrinja district photographed after the siege
An iconic building before the war was Robna kuća Sarajka. Today BBI Centar stands in its place.
Ratko Mladić during the trial at the Hague Tribunal

The siege of Sarajevo (Opsada Sarajeva) was a prolonged blockade of Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, during the Bosnian War.

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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One of the two entities within the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska.

One of the two entities within the State of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being Republika Srpska.

Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1997
Flag of the Federation from 1996 to 2007
Coat of arms of the Federation from 1996 to 2007

The Federation was created by the 1994 Washington Agreement, which ended the Croat–Bosniak War within the Bosnian War, and established a constituent assembly that continued its work until October 1996.

Seated from left to right: Slobodan Milošević, Alija Izetbegović, Franjo Tuđman initialling the Dayton Peace Accords at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base on 21 November 1995.

Dayton Agreement

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Peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, United States, on 21 November 1995, and formally signed in Paris, on 14 December 1995.

Peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, United States, on 21 November 1995, and formally signed in Paris, on 14 December 1995.

Seated from left to right: Slobodan Milošević, Alija Izetbegović, Franjo Tuđman initialling the Dayton Peace Accords at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base on 21 November 1995.
The signing of the full and formal agreement in Paris.
Territorial changes.
Political division of Bosnia and Herzegovina after the Dayton Agreement.
Serb families forced from their homes due to regulations in the Dayton agreement from 1995. Picture taken near the town of Modriča, Noth-East in Bosnia

These accords put an end to the three-and-a-half-year-long Bosnian War, one of the Yugoslav Wars.