Botulinum toxin

Botoxbotulinumbotulinbotulinum toxin Abotulin toxinBotulinum neurotoxinDysportMyoblocOnabotulinumtoxinAbotulinum toxins
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.wikipedia
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Neurotoxin

neurotoxicneurotoxinsneurotoxicity
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
Common examples of neurotoxins include lead, ethanol (drinking alcohol), glutamate, nitric oxide, botulinum toxin (e.g. Botox), tetanus toxin, and tetrodotoxin.

Botulism

avian botulismbotulinum antitoxinbotulinus
Infection with the bacterium causes the disease botulism.
Botulism is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

Clostridium botulinum

C. botulinumCl. botulinumbacillus botulinus
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.
Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.

Dystonia

dystonicdystonia musculorum deformanssensory trick
Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, including post-stroke spasticity, post-spinal cord injury spasticity, spasms of the head and neck, eyelid, vagina, limbs, jaw, and vocal cords.
Treatment must be highly customized to the needs of the individual and may include oral medications, chemodenervation botulinum neurotoxin injections, physical therapy, or other supportive therapies, and surgical procedures such as deep brain stimulation.

Esophageal achalasia

achalasiaCardiospasmAchalasia Awareness – Martin Mueller IV Achalasia Awareness Foundation
Similarly, botulinum toxin is used to relax clenching of muscles, including those of the oesophagus, jaw, lower urinary tract and bladder, or clenching of the anus which can exacerbate anal fissure.
Certain medications or Botox may be used in some cases, but more permanent relief is brought by esophageal dilatation and surgical cleaving of the muscle (Heller myotomy).

Blepharospasm

Benign essential blepharospasmblepharospasmodic contractionseyelid
Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, including post-stroke spasticity, post-spinal cord injury spasticity, spasms of the head and neck, eyelid, vagina, limbs, jaw, and vocal cords. Based on data from thousands of patients collected by 240 investigators, Allergan received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1989 to market Oculinum for clinical use in the United States to treat adult strabismus and blepharospasm, using the trademark Botox.
Although there is no cure, botulinum toxin injections may help temporarily.

Vaginismus

he cannot get his penis invagina
Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of disorders characterized by overactive muscle movement, including post-stroke spasticity, post-spinal cord injury spasticity, spasms of the head and neck, eyelid, vagina, limbs, jaw, and vocal cords.
Botulinum toxin is being studied.

Neuromuscular junction

neuromuscularneuromuscular junctionsneuromuscular transmission
It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis.
Botulinum toxin (aka botulinum neurotoxin, BoNT, and sold under the trade name Botox) inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction by interfering with SNARE proteins.

Overactive bladder

Urge incontinencebladder spasmincontinence
Botulinum toxin appears to be effective for refractory overactive bladder.
Injections of botulinum toxin into the bladder is another option.

Cerebral palsy

palsycerebral palsy sufferersCP
Namely, they warned that the toxin can spread to areas distant from the site of injection and paralyze unintended muscle groups, especially when used for treating muscle spasticity in children treated for cerebral palsy.
Medications such as diazepam, baclofen and botulinum toxin may help relax stiff muscles.

Heptavalent botulism antitoxin

Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin
The second antitoxin is Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, which is derived from equine antibodies which have been altered to make them less immunogenic.
The Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) - (Equine) (BAT) – BAT, made by Emergent BioSolutions Canada Inc. (formerly Cangene Corporation), – is a licensed, commercially available botulism anti-toxin that effectively neutralizes all seven known botulinum nerve toxin serotypes (types A, B, C, D, E, F and G).

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis.

Acetylcholine

cholinergicAChacetylcholine (ACh)
It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction and thus causes flaccid paralysis.
Botulinum toxin (Botox) acts by suppressing the release of acetylcholine, whereas the venom from a black widow spider (alpha-latrotoxin) has the reverse effect.

Neuropathic pain

neuropathicpaincentral neuropathic pain
Botulinum toxin is also used to treat disorders of hyperactive nerves including excessive sweating, neuropathic pain, and some allergy symptoms.
Local intradermal injection of botulinum toxin is helpful in chronic focal painful neuropathies.

Electromyography

EMGelectromyogramelectromyographic
Ophthalmologists specializing in eye muscle disorders (strabismus) had developed the method of EMG-guided injection (using the electromyogram, the electrical signal from an activated muscle, to guide injection) of local anesthetics as a diagnostic technique for evaluating an individual muscle's contribution to an eye movement.
EMG signals are sometimes used to guide botulinum toxin or phenol injections into muscles.

Anal fissure

anal fissuresrectal fissureAnal bleeding
Similarly, botulinum toxin is used to relax clenching of muscles, including those of the oesophagus, jaw, lower urinary tract and bladder, or clenching of the anus which can exacerbate anal fissure.
These include topical nitroglycerin or calcium channel blockers (e.g. diltiazem), or injection of botulinum toxin into the anal sphincter.

Median lethal dose

LD50LD 50 LC50
The estimated human median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of type A toxin is 1.3–2.1 ng/kg intravenously or intramuscularly, 10–13 ng/kg when inhaled, or 1000 ng/kg orally.
In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved alternative methods to LD 50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox without animal tests.

Alan B. Scott

Finally, inspired by Daniel Drachman's work with chicks at Johns Hopkins, Alan B. Scott and colleagues injected botulinum toxin into monkey extraocular muscles.
He is best known for his work in developing and manufacturing the drug that became known as Botox, research described as "groundbreaking" by the ASCRS.

Allergan

Allergan plcAllergan, PlcNaurex
Based on data from thousands of patients collected by 240 investigators, Allergan received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1989 to market Oculinum for clinical use in the United States to treat adult strabismus and blepharospasm, using the trademark Botox.
The company's products include Botox (botulinum toxin), Namenda (memantine), Restasis (ciclosporin), Linzess (linaclotide), Bystolic (nebivolol), Juvederm (injectable filler), Latisse (bimatoprost), Lo Loestrin Fe, Estrace (estradiol), Teflaro (ceftaroline fosamil), Dalvance (dalbavancin, Ozurdex (dexamethasone), Optive, Natrelle, Viibryd (vilazodone), Liletta (levonorgestrel), Saphris (asenapine), Enablex (darifenacin), Actonel (risedronic acid), Androderm (testosterone), and Gelnique (oxybutynin).

Bruxism

teeth grindinggrinding of teethsleep bruxism
Similarly, botulinum toxin is used to relax clenching of muscles, including those of the oesophagus, jaw, lower urinary tract and bladder, or clenching of the anus which can exacerbate anal fissure.
Botulinum toxin (Botox) is used as a treatment for bruxism, however there is only one randomized control trial which has reported that Botox reduces the myofascial pain symptoms.

William J. Binder

William J. Binder reported in 2000, that patients who had cosmetic injections around the face reported relief from chronic headache.
He is best known for his 1992 discovery of the use of Botox to alleviate chronic migraine.

Wrinkle

wrinklescrow's feetwrinkling
In cosmetic applications, botulinum toxin is considered safe and effective for reduction of facial wrinkles, especially in the uppermost third of the face.
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

Bioterrorism

bioterroristbiological terrorismbioterror
Botulinum toxin has been recognized as a potential agent for use in bioterrorism.

Focal hyperhidrosis

severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis
Botulinum toxin is also used to treat disorders of hyperactive nerves including excessive sweating, neuropathic pain, and some allergy symptoms. BTX-A has since been approved for the treatment of severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive underarm sweating of unknown cause), which cannot be managed by topical agents.
In addition to topical antiperspirants (whose main active ingredients usually are aluminum or zirconium salts) treatment options include: iontophoresis (hands, feet), onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox) injections (underarms, hands, feet, and other localized areas), electromagnetic/microwave energy thermolysis of underarm sweat glands (miraDry), laser-assisted removal of the sweat glands (underarms), other local procedures such as liposuction and curettage of the sweat glands (underarms), medications of the anticholinergic type that are taken by mouth, and sympathectomy surgery for sweating of the hands or head that can't be controlled by other means.

Hyperhidrosis

excessive sweatinghyperhydrosisGeneralized hyperhidrosis
Khalaf Bushara and David Park were the first to demonstrate a non-muscular use of BTX-A while treating patients with hemifacial spasm in England in 1993, showing that botulinum toxin injections inhibit sweating, and so are useful in treating hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).
Injections of botulinum toxin type A can be used to block neural control of sweat glands.