Bound and free morphemes

bound morphemefree morphemeboundbound morphemesfreeunbound morphemesfree formfree morphemesbound form (b.m.)
In general linguistics, a bound morpheme is a morpheme (the elementary unit of morphosyntax) that can appear only as part of a larger expression; a free morpheme (or unbound morpheme) is one that can stand alone.wikipedia
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Morpheme

morphemesmorphemicderivational
In general linguistics, a bound morpheme is a morpheme (the elementary unit of morphosyntax) that can appear only as part of a larger expression; a free morpheme (or unbound morpheme) is one that can stand alone.
The main difference between them is that a morpheme sometimes does not stand alone, but a word, by definition, always stands alone.

Affix

suffixaffixesaffixation
Affixes are bound by definition. English language affixes are almost exclusively prefixes or suffixes: pre- in "precaution" and -ment in "shipment".
They are bound morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes.

Root (linguistics)

rootrootsroot word
Many roots in English are free morphemes (e.g. ship- in "shipment"), but others are bound (e.g. socio- in "sociology".
The traditional definition allows roots to be either free morphemes or bound morphemes.

Prefix

prefixesprefixationquasi-
English language affixes are almost exclusively prefixes or suffixes: pre- in "precaution" and -ment in "shipment".
Prefixes, like all other affixes, are usually bound morphemes.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
Affixes may be inflectional, indicating how a certain word relates to other words in a larger phrase, or derivational, changing either the part of speech or the actual meaning of a word.
The inflected form of a word often contains both one or more free morphemes (a unit of meaning which can stand by itself as a word), and one or more bound morphemes (a unit of meaning which cannot stand alone as a word).

Suffix

suffixesendingsuffixation
English language affixes are almost exclusively prefixes or suffixes: pre- in "precaution" and -ment in "shipment".
A word-final segment that is somewhere between a free morpheme, and a bound morpheme is known as a suffixoid or a semi-suffix (e.g., English -like or German -freundlich 'friendly').

Cranberry morpheme

Cranberry morphemes are a special form of bound morpheme whose independent meaning has been displaced and serves only to distinguish one word from another, like in cranberry, in which the free morpheme berry is preceded by the bound morpheme cran-, meaning "crane" from the earlier name for the berry, "crane berry".
In linguistic morphology, a cranberry morpheme (or fossilized term) is a type of bound morpheme that cannot be assigned an independent meaning or grammatical function, but nonetheless serves to distinguish one word from another.

Analytic language

analyticanalytic languagesanalytical
Since such a language uses few bound morphemes, it expresses most grammatical relationships by word order or helper words, so it is an analytic language.
A grammatical construction can similarly be analytic if it uses unbound morphemes, which are separate words, and/or word order.

Morphological derivation

derivationderivationalderived
Affixes may be inflectional, indicating how a certain word relates to other words in a larger phrase, or derivational, changing either the part of speech or the actual meaning of a word.
Note that derivational affixes are bound morphemes – they are meaningful units, but can only normally occur when attached to another word.

Synthetic language

syntheticsyntheticallysynthesis
In contrast, a language that uses a substantial number of bound morphemes to express grammatical relationships is a synthetic language.
In relational synthesis, root words are joined to bound morphemes to show grammatical function.

Isolating language

isolatinganalyticisolating languages
A language with a very low ratio of morphemes to words is an isolating language.
A purely-isolating language would lack any visible morphology since no word would have an internal compositional structure in terms of word pieces (i.e. morphemes) and so it would lack bound morphemes like affixes.

Compound (linguistics)

compoundcompound wordcompounds
Words like chairman that contain two free morphemes (chair and man) are referred to as compound words.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
English language affixes are almost exclusively prefixes or suffixes: pre- in "precaution" and -ment in "shipment".

Part of speech

parts of speechclosed classword class
Affixes may be inflectional, indicating how a certain word relates to other words in a larger phrase, or derivational, changing either the part of speech or the actual meaning of a word.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
Words can be formed purely from bound morphemes, as in English permit, ultimately from Latin per "through" + mittō "I send", where per- and -mit are bound morphemes in English.

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
A similar example is given in Chinese; most of its morphemes are monosyllabic and identified with a Chinese character because of the largely morphosyllabic script, but disyllabic words exist that cannot be analyzed into independent morphemes, such as 蝴蝶 húdié 'butterfly'.

Writing system

scriptwriting systemsscripts
A similar example is given in Chinese; most of its morphemes are monosyllabic and identified with a Chinese character because of the largely morphosyllabic script, but disyllabic words exist that cannot be analyzed into independent morphemes, such as 蝴蝶 húdié 'butterfly'.

Chinese characters

ChineseChinese characterChinese:
A similar example is given in Chinese; most of its morphemes are monosyllabic and identified with a Chinese character because of the largely morphosyllabic script, but disyllabic words exist that cannot be analyzed into independent morphemes, such as 蝴蝶 húdié 'butterfly'.

Productivity (linguistics)

productiveproductivityproductively
Linguists usually distinguish between productive and unproductive forms when speaking about morphemes.

Word order

free word orderConstituent orderbasic word order
Since such a language uses few bound morphemes, it expresses most grammatical relationships by word order or helper words, so it is an analytic language.

English compound

compound nouncompoundEnglish compounds
A compound is a word composed of more than one free morpheme.

Jutsu

Jutsu —meaning technique, method, spell, skill or trick—is a bound morpheme of the Sino-Japanese lexical stratum of the Japanese language.