Bowel obstruction

intestinal obstructionobstructionsmall bowel obstructionintestinal blockageintestinal occlusiongastro-intestinal obstructionlarge bowel obstructionobstructed bowelblockages in the digestive systembowel (or intestinal) obstruction
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.wikipedia
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Volvulus

strangulationintestinal volvulusmidgut volvulus
Causes of bowel obstruction include adhesions, hernias, volvulus, endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, tumors, diverticulitis, ischemic bowel, tuberculosis and intussusception.
A volvulus is when a loop of intestine twists around itself and the mesentery that supports it, resulting in a bowel obstruction.

Bloating

bloatedabdominal bloatinggas
Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating and not passing gas.
Partial bowel obstruction

Acute abdomen

acute abdominal painabdomenabdomen, acute
Mechanical obstruction is the cause of about 5 to 15% of cases of severe abdominal pain of sudden onset requiring admission to hospital.
12) Bowel obstruction

Hernia

herniasherniationstrangulated hernia
Causes of bowel obstruction include adhesions, hernias, volvulus, endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, tumors, diverticulitis, ischemic bowel, tuberculosis and intussusception.
Obstruction of any lumen, such as bowel obstruction in intestinal hernias

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating and not passing gas. Depending on the level of obstruction, bowel obstruction can present with abdominal pain, swollen abdomen, abdominal distension, vomiting, fecal vomiting and constipation.
Fecal vomiting is often a consequence of intestinal obstruction or a gastrocolic fistula and is treated as a warning sign of this potentially serious problem (signum mali ominis).

Nasogastric intubation

nasogastric tubenasogastricnasogastric aspiration
Typically intravenous fluids are given, a tube is placed through the nose into the stomach to decompress the intestines, and pain medications are given.
Nasogastric aspiration is mainly used to remove gastrointestinal secretions and swallowed air in patients with gastrointestinal obstructions.

Gastrointestinal perforation

perforationbowel perforationintestinal perforation
Complications may include sepsis, bowel ischemia and bowel perforation.
The cause can include trauma such as from a knife wound, eating a sharp object, or a medical procedure such as colonoscopy, bowel obstruction such as from a volvulus, colon cancer, or diverticulitis, stomach ulcers, ischemic bowel, and a number of infections including C. difficile.

Crohn's disease

Crohn’s diseasechronCrohn
Crohn's disease causing adhesions or inflammatory strictures
Bowel obstruction may occur as a complication of chronic inflammation, and those with the disease are at greater risk of bowel cancer.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachstomachache
Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, bloating and not passing gas. Depending on the level of obstruction, bowel obstruction can present with abdominal pain, swollen abdomen, abdominal distension, vomiting, fecal vomiting and constipation.
Small bowel obstruction secondary to adhesions caused by previous surgeries, intussusception, hernias, benign or malignant neoplasms

Fecal vomiting

Depending on the level of obstruction, bowel obstruction can present with abdominal pain, swollen abdomen, abdominal distension, vomiting, fecal vomiting and constipation.
It is a common symptom of gastrojejunocolic fistula and intestinal obstruction in the ileum.

Abdominal distension

abdominal distentiondistensiondistended
Depending on the level of obstruction, bowel obstruction can present with abdominal pain, swollen abdomen, abdominal distension, vomiting, fecal vomiting and constipation.
In rare cases, bloating may occur in individuals who have milk intolerance (lactose intolerance), parasite infections like giardia, food poisoning (bacteria), celiac disease, severe peptic ulcer disease, bowel obstruction or after certain types of abdominal surgery.

Diverticulitis

diverticulitis, colonicinflamed colonintestinal disorder
Causes of bowel obstruction include adhesions, hernias, volvulus, endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, tumors, diverticulitis, ischemic bowel, tuberculosis and intussusception.
Sometimes, inflamed diverticula can cause narrowing of the bowel, leading to an obstruction.

Gallstone ileus

Foreign bodies (e.g. gallstones in gallstone ileus, swallowed objects)
First described by Thomas Bartholin in 1654, gallstone ileus is a rare form of small bowel obstruction caused by an impaction of a gallstone within the lumen (small opening) of the small intestine.

Hirschsprung's disease

hirschsprung diseaseabsence of nerve cellsDuhamel Procedure
Short-segment Hirschsprung's disease
Complications may include enterocolitis, megacolon, bowel obstruction, and intestinal perforation.

Adhesion (medicine)

adhesionsadhesionabdominal adhesions
Causes of bowel obstruction include adhesions, hernias, volvulus, endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, tumors, diverticulitis, ischemic bowel, tuberculosis and intussusception.
Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a significant consequence of post-surgical adhesions.

Ischemic colitis

colitis, ischemicintestinal ischemiaIschemic bowel
Causes of bowel obstruction include adhesions, hernias, volvulus, endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, tumors, diverticulitis, ischemic bowel, tuberculosis and intussusception.
If a bowel obstruction develops as a result of the stricture, surgical resection is the usual treatment, although endoscopic dilatation and stenting have also been employed.

Intussusception (medical disorder)

intussusceptionictusintro-susception
Causes of bowel obstruction include adhesions, hernias, volvulus, endometriosis, inflammatory bowel disease, appendicitis, tumors, diverticulitis, ischemic bowel, tuberculosis and intussusception.
In adults, intussusception represents the cause of approximately 1% of bowel obstructions and is frequently associated with neoplasm, malignant or otherwise.

Ogilvie syndrome

pseudo-obstruction
Pseudo-obstruction or Ogilvie's syndrome
Ogilvie syndrome is the acute dilation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction in severely ill patients.

Ileus

paralytic ileusintestinal obstructionbowel paralysis
Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.
Although ileus originally referred to any lack of digestive propulsion, including bowel obstruction, up-to-date medical usage restricts its meaning to those disruptions caused by the failure of peristalsis, rather than by mechanical obstruction.

Anismus

anal sphincter dyssynergia
Anismus (pelvic floor dyssynergia)
It is also a type of rectal outlet obstruction (a functional outlet obstruction).

Colonoscopy

colonoscopiescolonoscopecolonoscopic
Colonoscopy, small bowel investigation with ingested camera or push endoscopy, and laparoscopy are other diagnostic options.
Colonoscopy preparation and colonoscopy procedure can cause inflammation of the bowels and diarrhea or bowel obstruction.

X-ray

x-rayssoft x-rayx rays
The diagnosis may be made on plain X-rays; however, CT scan is more accurate.
Some notable examples are the very common chest X-ray, which can be used to identify lung diseases such as pneumonia, lung cancer, or pulmonary edema, and the abdominal x-ray, which can detect bowel (or intestinal) obstruction, free air (from visceral perforations) and free fluid (in ascites).

Intestinal atresia

atresiaAtresia of small intestineDuodenal (intestinal) atresia
Intestinal atresia
Bowel obstruction

Laparoscopy

laparoscopiclaparoscopic surgerylaparoscopically
Colonoscopy, small bowel investigation with ingested camera or push endoscopy, and laparoscopy are other diagnostic options.
Intra-abdominal adhesion formation is a risk associated with both laparoscopic and open surgery and remains a significant, unresolved problem. Adhesions are fibrous deposits that connect tissue to organ post surgery. Generally, they occur in 50-100% of all abdominal surgeries, with the risk of developing adhesions being the same for both procedures. Complications of adhesions include chronic pelvic pain, bowel obstruction, and female infertility. In particular, small bowel obstruction poses the most significant problem. The use of surgical humidification therapy during laparoscopic surgery may minimise the incidence of adhesion formation. Other techniques to reduce adhesion formation include the use of physical barriers such as films or gels, or broad-coverage fluid agents to separate tissues during healing following surgery.

Abdominal x-ray

KUBkidneys, ureters, and bladderkidneys, ureters, and bladder x-ray
Suspected bowel obstruction or gastrointestinal perforation; Abdominal x-ray will demonstrate most cases of bowel obstruction, by showing dilated bowel loops.