Boxer Rebellion

Boxer UprisingBoxersThe Boxer RebellionBoxer RisingChinaBoxerChina 1900Boxer MovementBoxer rebelsBoxer War
The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-foreign, and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.wikipedia
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Siege of the International Legations

Siege of the Legations55-day siegebesieged
The Eight-Nation Alliance, after being initially turned back, brought 20,000 armed troops to China, defeated the Imperial Army, and arrived at Peking on August14, relieving the siege of the Legations.
The Siege of the International Legations occurred in the summer of 1900 in Peking (today Beijing), the capital of the Qing Empire, during the Boxer Rebellion.

Boxer Protocol

Boxer IndemnityBoxer IndemnitiesBritish Boxer Indemnity Fund
The Boxer Protocol of 7 September 1901 provided for the execution of government officials who had supported the Boxers, provisions for foreign troops to be stationed in Beijing, and 450 million taels of silver—approximately $10 billion at 2018 silver prices and more than the government's annual tax revenue—to be paid as indemnity over the course of the next thirty-nine years to the eight nations involved.
The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (including Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United States, and the United Kingdom) as well as Belgium, Spain, and the Netherlands; after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion.

Empress Dowager Cixi

CixiEmpress DowagerTzu Hsi
In response to reports of an armed invasion by Eight Nation Alliance of American, Austro-Hungarian, British, French, German, Italian, Japanese, and Russian forces to lift the siege, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers.
After the Boxer Rebellion led to invasion by Allied armies, Cixi initially backed the Boxer groups and declared war on the invaders.

Beijing Legation Quarter

Legation Quarterforeign legationsAmerican Legation
Foreigners and Chinese Christians sought refuge in the Legation Quarter.
The Legation Quarter was the location of the 55-day siege of the International Legations, which took place during the Boxer Rebellion of 1900.

Yuxian (Qing dynasty)

Yuxian
In 1895, in spite of ambivalence toward their heterodox practices, Yuxian, a Manchu who was then prefect of Caozhou and would later become provincial governor, used the Big Swords Society in fighting bandits.
Yuxian (1842–1901) was a Manchu high official of the Qing dynasty who played an important role in the violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian Boxer Rebellion, which unfolded in northern China from the fall of 1899 to 1901.

Shandong

Shandong ProvinceShantungShantung Province
After several months of growing violence in Shandong and the North China Plain against the foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners.
Shandong was one of the first places in which the Boxer Rebellion started and became one of the centers of the uprising.

Society of the Divine Word

S.V.D.Divine Word MissionariesSVD
On 1 November 1897, a band of armed men who were perhaps members of the Big Swords Society stormed the residence of a German missionary from the Society of the Divine Word and killed two priests.
In 1882, the Society started sending missionaries into China’s Shandong Province, where their aggressive methods were part of the chain of events that led to the Boxer Uprising in the late 1890s.

Persecution of Christians

persecutionanti-Christianpersecuted
The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-foreign, and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
During the Boxer Rebellion, Muslim unit Kansu Braves serving in the Chinese army attacked Christians.

Battle of Senluo Temple

The "Boxers" called themselves the "Militia United in Righteousness" for the first time one year later, at the Battle of Senluo Temple (October 1899), a clash between Boxers and Qing government troops.
The Battle of Senluo Temple was a clash between members of the "Militia United in Righteousness" (better known as the "Boxers") and Qing government troops that took place on October 18, 1899, near a temple located on the western edge of Pingyuan County in northwestern Shandong.

Clemens von Ketteler

Baron von KettelerKlemens von KettelerClemens August Freiherr von Ketteler
The German Minister, Clemens von Ketteler, and German soldiers captured a Boxer boy and inexplicably executed him.
He was murdered during the Boxer Rebellion.

Nie Shicheng

Nieh Shih-ch'eng
Confused by conflicting orders from Beijing, General Nie Shicheng let Seymour's army pass by in their trains.
Nie Shicheng (1836 – July 1900) was a Chinese general who served the Imperial government during the Boxer Rebellion.

Kansu Braves

Gansu ArmyGansu Bravesattacked and killed by the Muslim soldiers
On 11 June, at Yongding gate, the secretary of the Japanese legation, Sugiyama Akira, was attacked and killed by the soldiers of general Dong Fuxiang, who were guarding the southern part of the Beijing walled city. Five thousand of Dong Fuxiang's "Gansu Braves" and an unknown number of "Boxers" won a costly but major victory over Seymour's troops at the Battle of Langfang on 18 June.
The Braves, who wore traditional uniforms but were armed with modern rifles and artillery, played an important role in 1900 during the Boxer Rebellion.

Battle of the Taku Forts (1900)

Dagu FortsBattle of Taku FortsBattle of Dagu Forts (1900)
The event that tilted the Qing imperial government irrevocably toward support of the Boxers and war with the foreign powers was the attack of foreign navies on the Dagu Forts near Tianjin, on 17 June 1900.
The Battle of Taku or Dagu Forts was a battle during the Boxer Rebellion between the Chinese military and allied Western and Japanese naval forces.

Battle of Langfang

battles at Langfang
Five thousand of Dong Fuxiang's "Gansu Braves" and an unknown number of "Boxers" won a costly but major victory over Seymour's troops at the Battle of Langfang on 18 June.
The Battle of Langfang was a battle in the Seymour Expedition during the Boxer Rebellion, in June 1900, involving Chinese imperial troops, the Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves and Boxers ambushing and defeating the Eight-Nation Alliance expeditionary army on its way to Beijing, pushing the Alliance forces to retreat back to Tientsin (Tianjin).

Mutual Protection of Southeast China

Southeast Mutual ProtectionThe Mutual Protection of Southeast ChinaNumerous Qing governors
Officials in the Mutual Protection of Southeast China refused the imperial order to fight against foreigners.
The Mutual Protection of Southeast China (Chinese: 東南互保) was an agreement made in the summer of 1900 during the Boxer Uprising among governors of the provinces in southern, eastern and central China when the Eight Power Expedition invaded North China.

Battle of Tientsin

Tientsinof Tientsindefeated the Chinese forces in the city of Tientsin
At the Battle of Tianjin (Tientsin), General Nie decided to sacrifice his life by walking into the range of Allied guns.
The Battle of Tientsin, or the Relief of Tientsin, occurred on July 13–14, 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion in Northern China.

Big Swords Society

Big Sword SocietyBig Sword
In 1895, in spite of ambivalence toward their heterodox practices, Yuxian, a Manchu who was then prefect of Caozhou and would later become provincial governor, used the Big Swords Society in fighting bandits. On 1 November 1897, a band of armed men who were perhaps members of the Big Swords Society stormed the residence of a German missionary from the Society of the Divine Word and killed two priests.
Both the Big Swords and Red Spears societies had taken part in the Boxer Rebellion in North China in 1900.

John Twiggs Myers

John T. Myers
"The men all feel they are in a trap", said the American commander, Capt. John T. Myers, "and simply await the hour of execution."
John Twiggs Myers (January 29, 1871 – April 17, 1952) was a United States Marine Corps general who was most famous for his service as the American Legation Guard in Peking during the Boxer Rebellion.

Yikuang

Prince QingYikuang, Prince QingPrince Ching
Chinese officialdom was split between those supporting the Boxers and those favoring conciliation, led by Prince Qing.
During the Boxer Rebellion from 1899 to 1901, Yikuang was more sympathetic towards the foreigners whereas Zaiyi (Prince Duan) sided with the Boxers against the foreigners.

Eight-Nation Alliance

Eight Nation AllianceAlliedAllies
In response to reports of an armed invasion by Eight Nation Alliance of American, Austro-Hungarian, British, French, German, Italian, Japanese, and Russian forces to lift the siege, the initially hesitant Empress Dowager Cixi supported the Boxers and on June21 issued an Imperial Decree declaring war on the foreign powers.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was a multi-national military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion crisis in Imperial China in 1900.

Edwin H. Conger

Edwin Hurd CongerEdwin Conger
American Minister Edwin H. Conger cabled Washington, "the whole country is swarming with hungry, discontented, hopeless idlers."
As the United States' minister to China during the Boxer Rebellion, Conger, his family, and other western diplomatic legations were under siege in Beijing until rescued by the China Relief Expedition.

Empire of Japan

JapaneseJapanImperial Japan
France gained a sphere over Yunnan, most of Guangxi and Guangdong provinces, Japan over Fujian province, and the British Empire over the whole Yangtze River Valley (defined as all provinces adjoining the Yangtze river as well as Henan and Zhejiang provinces ), parts of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces and part of Tibet.
Japan's rapid industrialization and militarization under the slogan Fukoku Kyōhei and Shokusan Kōgyō led to its emergence as a world power and the establishment of a colonial empire following the First Sino-Japanese War, the Boxer Rebellion, the Russo-Japanese War, and World War I.

Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising, or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist, anti-foreign, and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Widespread drought in North China, combined with the imperialist designs of European powers and the instability of the Qing government, created conditions that led to the emergence of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists, or "Boxers."

Zaiyi

Prince DuanPrince TuanZaiyi (Prince Duan)
The Manchu Zaiyi (Prince Duan), an anti-foreign friend of Dong Fuxiang, wanted artillery for Dong's troops to destroy the legations.
He is best known as one of the leaders of the Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901.

Christianity in China

Chinese ChristiansChristianChristians
After several months of growing violence in Shandong and the North China Plain against the foreign and Christian presence in June 1900, Boxer fighters, convinced they were invulnerable to foreign weapons, converged on Beijing with the slogan Support the Qing government and exterminate the foreigners.
The Boxer Uprising was in large part a reaction against Christianity in China.