Brabant Revolution

Brabant1789 Belgian revolta number of reformsa revolution against Austrian rulean insurrection against the Austriansas they had earlier in 1790Belgian RevolutionBrabant RevoltBrabantineBrabantine Revolution
The Brabant Revolution or Brabantine Revolution (Révolution brabançonne, Brabantse Omwenteling), sometimes referred to as the Belgian Revolution of 1789–90 in older writing, was an armed insurrection that occurred in the Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) between October 1789 and December 1790.wikipedia
222 Related Articles

United Belgian States

United States of BelgiumBrabantBrabant Revolution
The revolution, which occurred at the same time as revolutions in France and Liège, led to the brief overthrow of Habsburg rule and the proclamation of a short-lived polity, the United Belgian States.
The United Belgian States (Verenigde Nederlandse Staten or Verenigde Belgische Staten, États-Belgiques-Unis, ), also known as the United States of Belgium, was a confederal republic in the Southern Netherlands (modern-day Belgium and Luxembourg) which was established after the Brabant Revolution.

Jan Frans Vonck

VonckVonckists
The Vonckists, led by Jan Frans Vonck, advocated progressive and liberal government, whereas the Statists, led by Hendrik Van der Noot, were staunchly conservative and supported by the Church. Inside the Austrian Netherlands themselves, the lawyers Jan Frans Vonck and Verlooy formed a secret society called Pro Aris et Focis in April or May 1789 in order to plan for an armed uprising against Austrian rule.
Johannes Franciscus Vonck, also known by the Francization Jean-François Vonck or the Netherlandization Jan-Frans Vonck, (29 November 1743 – 1 December 1792) was a lawyer and one of the leaders of the Brabant Revolution from 1789-1790.

Hendrik Van der Noot

Henri Van der NootVan der Noot
The Vonckists, led by Jan Frans Vonck, advocated progressive and liberal government, whereas the Statists, led by Hendrik Van der Noot, were staunchly conservative and supported by the Church.
He was one of the main figures of the Brabant Revolution (1789–1790) against the Austrian rule of Joseph II.

Vonckists

Vonckist
The Vonckists, led by Jan Frans Vonck, advocated progressive and liberal government, whereas the Statists, led by Hendrik Van der Noot, were staunchly conservative and supported by the Church.
The Vonckists (Vonckisten) were a political faction during the Brabant Revolution led by Jan Frans Vonck, opposed to the more conservative "Statists".

Battle of Turnhout (1789)

Battle of Turnhout1789Turnhout
Soon after the outbreak of the French and Liège revolutions, this émigré army crossed into the Austrian Netherlands and decisively defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Turnhout in October 1789.
The battle was one of the pivotal moments of the Brabant Revolution and the Patriots' unlikely victory led to the expulsion of Austrian forces to Luxembourg from the Southern Netherlands for nearly a year.

Statists (Belgium)

StatistsStatist
The Vonckists, led by Jan Frans Vonck, advocated progressive and liberal government, whereas the Statists, led by Hendrik Van der Noot, were staunchly conservative and supported by the Church.
The Statists (Statisten) were a conservative political faction in the United Belgian States during the Brabant Revolution (1789–1790).

French Revolutionary Wars

French RevolutionaryFrench Revolutionary WarFrench Revolutionary troops
The Austrian reestablishment was short-lived, however, and the territory was soon overrun by the French during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Dumouriez prepared an immediate invasion of the Austrian Netherlands, where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule as they had earlier in 1790.

Liège Revolution

Liège revolutionsinsurgents of LiegeLiege Revolution
The revolution, which occurred at the same time as revolutions in France and Liège, led to the brief overthrow of Habsburg rule and the proclamation of a short-lived polity, the United Belgian States.
The emperor's own subjects did not like these reforms and began the Brabant Revolution in 1787, partly in opposition to the reforms and partly to the authoritarian fashion in which they had been imposed.

Austro-Turkish War (1788–1791)

Austro-Turkish WarAustro-Turkish War (1787–91)Austro-Turkish War (1787–1791)
By mid-1790, Habsburg Austria ended its war with the Ottoman Empire and prepared to suppress the Brabant revolutionaries.
In fact, Joseph was facing a serious threat to his rule in a distant portion of his empire, in what is now Belgium; as well as long-term tensions with a powerful northerly neighbor, Prussia.

Battle of Falmagne

After a Statist army was overcome at the Battle of Falmagne, the territory was quickly overrun by Imperial forces, and the revolution was defeated by December.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
The revolution, which occurred at the same time as revolutions in France and Liège, led to the brief overthrow of Habsburg rule and the proclamation of a short-lived polity, the United Belgian States.
In the Austrian Netherlands, the Brabant Revolution succeeded in expelling Austrian forces and established the new United Belgian States.

Manifesto of the People of Brabant

Manifesto of BrabantManifesto of the Brabant People
The army arrived in the town of Hoogstraten where a specially prepared document, the Manifesto of the People of Brabant (Manifeste du peuple brabançon), was read in the city hall.
The Manifesto of the People of Brabant (Manifeste du peuple brabançon, Manifest van het Brabantse Volk) was a document made public at the start of the Brabant Revolution in 1789 proclaiming the end of Austrian occupation over the Duchy of Brabant.

Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen

Archduchess Maria Christina of AustriaMaria ChristinaMarie Christine of Austria
Joseph's mother, Maria Theresa, had appointed her favourite daughter, Maria Christina, and her husband, Albert Casimir, as joint Governors of the Austrian Netherlands in 1780.
On 24 October 1789 started the Brabant Revolution: from Breda the anti-imperial "Patriot Army" invaded Brabant and in the next few weeks they gained this province and Flanders under their control.

Republic of Liège

a republicDeclaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of Franchimontdeclared Liège a republic
In the face of a rebellion proclaiming the ideas of liberty and equality, the Prince-Bishop soon fled to the neighbouring Archbishopric of Trier and the revolutionaries proclaimed a republic in Liège.
It coexisted with the even more short-lived revolutionary state, the United States of Belgium, created by the Brabant Revolution of 1789, to the north.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceAmerican Declaration of IndependenceU.S. Declaration of Independence
The constitution eventually devised by the States-General was inspired by both the Dutch Verlatinge of 1581 and American Declaration of Independence of 1776.
The Declaration of Independence inspired many similar documents in other countries, the first being the 1789 Declaration of United Belgian States issued during the Brabant Revolution in the Austrian Netherlands.

Josephinism

JosephinistJosephine Reformsrationalist reforms
Joseph II, who was known as the philosopher-emperor (empereur philosophe), had a particular interest in Enlightenment thought and had his own ideology which has sometimes been termed "Josephinism" after him.
In 1787, the "administrative streamlining" that had been applied to the rest of the Empire was nominally applied to Austrian possessions in the Netherlands, but this was fiercely opposed by Belgian nobles, and would be a major contribution to the Brabant Revolution.

Jan-Baptist Verlooy

Jan Baptist Chrysostomus VerlooyJan VerlooyJan-Baptist Chrysostomus Verlooy
Within the states themselves, the "traditional" independence was considered extremely important and figures such as Jan-Baptist Verlooy had even begun to claim the linguistic unity of Flemish dialects as a sign of national identity in Flanders.
During the Brabant Revolution which then started, he was thus part of the most liberal faction of the revolutionaries, known as the Vonckisten, named after their leader.

Jean-André van der Mersch

General Vander MeerschJean-André van der Meersch
On 30 August, Pro Aris et Focis voted to install Jean-André van der Mersch (or Vandermersch), a retired military officer, as the commander of the émigré army in Breda.
Jean-André van der Mersch (also known as Jan Andries vander Mersch or Jan André van der Meersch) (Menen, 10 February 1734 – Dadizele, 14 September 1792) was a leading figure in the Brabant Revolution best known for his victory against Austrian forces of Joseph II at the Battle of Turnhout in 1789.

General Council of Government

The first decree abolished many of the administrative structures which had existed since the rule of Emperor Charles V (1500–58) were replaced by a single General Council of Government under a minister-plenipotentiary.
The abolition of the inherited system of government was one of the main causes of the Brabant Revolution.

Committee of United Belgians and Liégeois

Belgian" Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
After the two Belgian revolutions were crushed, a number of Brabant and Liège revolutionaries regrouped in Paris, where they formed the joint Committee of United Belgians and Liégeois (Comité des belges et liégeois unis), which united revolutionaries from both territories for the first time.
The Committee of United Belgians and Liégeois (Dutch: Comité der Vereenigde Nederlanders en Luykenaers or Verenigd Comité der beide Natien, French: Comité (général) des Belges et Liégeois Unis) was a group of exiled rebel leaders from the failed Brabantine and Liège Revolution s (August 1789 – January 1791) who sought to create an independent Belgian republic.

Pro aris et focis

Pro Deo et PatriaFor God and Country
Inside the Austrian Netherlands themselves, the lawyers Jan Frans Vonck and Verlooy formed a secret society called Pro Aris et Focis in April or May 1789 in order to plan for an armed uprising against Austrian rule.
Pro Aris et Focis is the name of a secret society in Brussels in 1789 which prepared the Brabant Revolution against the Austrian Emperor Joseph II.

Ludovico, Count di Belgiojoso

Carlo Maria Luigi, Count of Barbiano and BelgiojosoCount BelgiojosoCount Ludovico di Barbiano di Belgiojoso
The Emperor himself was furious and recalled his minister, Ludovico, Count di Belgiojoso.
In this period emperor Joseph II tried to introduce a number of reforms, especially in the field of education, which caused a lot of resistance.

Sovereign Congress (United Belgian States)

Sovereign CongressPresidentPresidents
A Sovereign Congress was created in Brussels which would act as a parliament for the whole union.
Its primary task was to manage the sovereignty of the independent territories of the United States of Belgium during the Brabant Revolution.

Flag of Belgium

Belgian flagBelgianBelgian Tricolor
The colours (red, yellow and black) today form the national flag of Belgium.
The insurgents hastily replaced it with a tricolour of red, yellow and black horizontal stripes (similar to the one used during the Brabant Revolution of 1789–1790 which had established the United States of Belgium) made at a nearby fabric store.