Brachytherapy

implant radiationradiation seederbrachytheraputicbrachytherapy (sealed source radiotherapy)endocurietherapyinternal radiationiridium wire therapyplacement of the radiation sourcesradioactive "seed" implantationradium tube inserts
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.wikipedia
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External beam radiotherapy

teletherapyexternal beam radiation therapyexternal beam radiation
Treatment results have demonstrated that the cancer-cure rates of brachytherapy are either comparable to surgery and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or are improved when used in combination with these techniques.
In contrast to brachytherapy (sealed source radiotherapy) and unsealed source radiotherapy, in which the radiation source is inside the body, external beam radiotherapy directs the radiation at the tumour from outside the body.

Iodine-125

125 I125-I125I
Brachytherapy instead involves the precise placement of short-range radiation-sources (radioisotopes, Iodine-125 or Cesium-131 for instance) directly at the site of the cancerous tumour.
Iodine-125 ( 125 I) is a radioisotope of iodine which has uses in biological assays, nuclear medicine imaging and in radiation therapy as brachytherapy to treat a number of conditions, including prostate cancer, uveal melanomas, and brain tumors.

Unsealed source radiotherapy

therapy(unsealed source) therapiesmedical treatment
Brachytherapy contrasts with unsealed source radiotherapy, in which a therapeutic radionuclide (radioisotope) is injected into the body to chemically localize to the tissue requiring destruction.
RNT contrasts with sealed-source therapy (brachytherapy) where the radionuclide remains in a capsule or metal wire during treatment and needs to be physically placed precisely at the treatment position.

Breast cancer

breastbreast carcinomabreast cancers
Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, esophageal and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites.
Radiation therapy can be delivered as external beam radiotherapy or as brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy).

Cervical cancer

cervicalcervical carcinomacervix
Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, esophageal and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites.
Radiation therapy is given as external beam radiotherapy to the pelvis and brachytherapy (internal radiation).

Prostate cancer

prostatehormone-refractory prostate cancermetastatic prostate cancer
Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, esophageal and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites.
Treatment of aggressive prostate cancers may involve surgery (i.e. radical prostatectomy), radiation therapy including brachytherapy (prostate brachytherapy), external beam radiation therapy, and particle therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), chemotherapy, oral chemotherapeutic drugs (temozolomide/TMZ), cryosurgery, hormonal therapy, or some combination.

Skin cancer

non-melanoma skin cancerskinskin neoplasm
Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, esophageal and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites. HDR brachytherapy for nonmelanomatous skin cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, provides an alternative treatment option to surgery.
For low-risk disease, radiation therapy (external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy), topical chemotherapy (imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil) and cryotherapy (freezing the cancer off) can provide adequate control of the disease; all of them, however, may have lower overall cure rates than certain type of surgery.

Prostate

prostate glandprostaticventral prostate
Brachytherapy is commonly used to treat cancers of the cervix, prostate, breast, and skin.
Prostate cancer that is only present in the prostate is often treated with either surgical removal of the prostate or with radiotherapy or by the insertion of small radioactive particles (brachytherapy) Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is usually treated with hormone therapy, to deprive a tumour of sex hormones (androgens) that stimulate proliferation.

Isotopes of caesium

caesium-133 134 Cscaesium-134
Brachytherapy instead involves the precise placement of short-range radiation-sources (radioisotopes, Iodine-125 or Cesium-131 for instance) directly at the site of the cancerous tumour.
Caesium-131, introduced in 2004 for brachytherapy by Isoray, has a half-life of 9.7 days and 30.4 keV energy.

Prostate brachytherapy

Brachytherapy is a type of radiotherapy, or radiation treatment, offered to certain cancer patients.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.
Brachytherapy, in which a radioactive source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment, is another form of radiation therapy that minimizes exposure to healthy tissue during procedures to treat cancers of the breast, prostate and other organs.

Nuclear medicine

nuclear imagingnuclear cardiologyradionuclide imaging
In some centers the nuclear medicine department may also use implanted capsules of isotopes (brachytherapy) to treat cancer.

Basal-cell carcinoma

basal cell carcinomabasal cell cancerrodent ulcer
HDR brachytherapy for nonmelanomatous skin cancer, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, provides an alternative treatment option to surgery.
Radiation therapy can be delivered either as external beam radiotherapy or as brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy).

Iridium

IrIr-192Ir(III)
Radon and cobalt were replaced by radioactive tantalum and gold, before iridium rose in prominence.
192 Ir, which falls between the two stable isotopes, is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 73.827 days, and finds application in brachytherapy and in industrial radiography, particularly for nondestructive testing of welds in steel in the oil and gas industries; iridium-192 sources have been involved in a number of radiological accidents.

Isotopes of iridium

iridium-192 192 IrIr-192
It is also used in radiotherapy as a radiation source, in particular in brachytherapy.

Radon

radon gasRnNiton (element)
Gold seeds filled with radon were used as early as 1942 until at least 1958.
Radon has been used in implantable seeds, made of gold or glass, primarily used to treat cancers, known as brachytherapy.

Orphan source

orphaned sourceorphaned sourcesradioactive object
Due to the small size of brachytherapy sources and low control in early decades, there is a risk that some of these have escaped into the environment to become orphaned sources.

Radiation

radiologicalradioactiveradiative
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Brachy is Greek for short distance.

Esophageal cancer

throat canceroesophageal canceresophageal
Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, esophageal and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Brachytherapy can be used alone or in combination with other therapies such as surgery, EBRT and chemotherapy.

Radionuclide

radioisotoperadioisotopesradionuclides
Brachytherapy contrasts with unsealed source radiotherapy, in which a therapeutic radionuclide (radioisotope) is injected into the body to chemically localize to the tissue requiring destruction.

Cobalt-60

60 CoCobalt 60Co-60
It also contrasts to EBRT, in which high-energy x-rays (or occasionally gamma-rays from a radioisotope like cobalt-60) are directed at the tumour from outside the body.