Brahma Sutras

Brahma SutraBrahmasutraVedanta SutraVedanta SutrasBrahma sūtrasBrahmaSutrasVedanta-sutraVedanta-SutrasBrahm SutraBrahma-sutras
The Brahma sūtras is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form in approx.wikipedia
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Upanishads

UpanishadUpanishadicUpanisads
The text systematizes and summarizes the philosophical and spiritual ideas in the Upanishads.
Along with the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahmasutra, the mukhya Upanishads (known collectively as the Prasthanatrayi) provide a foundation for the several later schools of Vedanta, among them, two influential monistic schools of Hinduism.

Advaita Vedanta

AdvaitaAdvaita VedāntaAdvaitha
It has been influential to various schools of Indian philosophies, but interpreted differently by the non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta sub-school, the theistic Vishishtadvaita and Dvaita Vedanta sub-schools, as well as others.
It gives "a unifying interpretation of the whole body of Upanishads", the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavad Gita.

Adi Shankara

Adi ShankaracharyaShankaraAdi Sankara
Several commentaries on the Brahma-sutras are lost to history or yet to be found; of the surviving ones, the most well studied commentaries on the Brahmasutra include the bhashya by Adi Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhvacharya, Bhaskara and many others.
He wrote copious commentaries on the Vedic canon (Brahma Sutras, Principal Upanishads and Bhagavad Gita) in support of his thesis.

Vishishtadvaita

VishistadvaitaVisishtadvaitaVishishtadvaita Vedanta
It has been influential to various schools of Indian philosophies, but interpreted differently by the non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta sub-school, the theistic Vishishtadvaita and Dvaita Vedanta sub-schools, as well as others.
Ramanuja, the main proponent of Vishishtadvaita philosophy contends that the Prasthanatrayi ("The three courses"), namely the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Brahma Sutras are to be interpreted in a way that shows this unity in diversity, for any other way would violate their consistency.

Sutra

sūtrasutrassutta
The Brahma sutras consists of 555 aphoristic verses (sutras) in four chapters.

Bhagavad Gita

GitaBhagavad-GitaBhagvad Gita
The Brahmasutra is one of three most important texts in Vedanta along with the Principal Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita.
He cites similar quotes in the Dharmasutra texts, the Brahma sutras, and other literature to conclude that the Bhagavad Gita was composed in the fifth or fourth century BCE.

Madhvacharya

MadhvaMadhwacharyaMadhwa
Several commentaries on the Brahma-sutras are lost to history or yet to be found; of the surviving ones, the most well studied commentaries on the Brahmasutra include the bhashya by Adi Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhvacharya, Bhaskara and many others.
Madhva studied the classics of Hindu philosophy, particularly the Principal Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and the Brahma Sutras (Prasthanatrayi).

Ramanuja

RamanujacharyaSri RamanujacharyaRamanujar
Several commentaries on the Brahma-sutras are lost to history or yet to be found; of the surviving ones, the most well studied commentaries on the Brahmasutra include the bhashya by Adi Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhvacharya, Bhaskara and many others.
Ramanuja himself wrote influential texts, such as bhāsya on the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita, all in Sanskrit.

Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosopherdarsanasDarshanas
It is one of the foundational texts of the Vedānta school of Hindu philosophy.
The Vedānta school built upon the teachings of the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras from the first millennium BCE and is the most developed and best-known of the Hindu schools.

Badarayana

The Brahma sūtras is a Sanskrit text, attributed to Badarayana, estimated to have been completed in its surviving form in approx.
The date of Badarayana and his Brahma Sutras is uncertain.

Jaimini

Jaimini BharataJaimini systemJaiminī
Bādarāyana was the Guru (teacher) of Jaimini, the latter credited with authoring Mimamsa Sutras of the Mimamsa school of Hindu philosophy.
Jaimini's guru was Badarayana, the latter founded the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy, emphasizing the knowledge parts of the Vedas, and credited with authoring Brahma Sutras.

Bhāskara (philosopher)

BhaskaraBhāskara
Several commentaries on the Brahma-sutras are lost to history or yet to be found; of the surviving ones, the most well studied commentaries on the Brahmasutra include the bhashya by Adi Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhvacharya, Bhaskara and many others.
He wrote commentaries on the Brahma Sutras, and contested Shankara's doctrine of māyā.

Vedas

VedicVedaVedic literature
It is also known as the Vedanta Sutra (Sanskrit: वेदान्त सूत्र), deriving this name from Vedanta which literally means the "final aim of the Vedas".
Other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita or the Vedanta Sutras are considered shruti or "Vedic" by some Hindu denominations but not universally within Hinduism.

Vedanta

VedanticVedāntaVedantist
It is one of the foundational texts of the Vedānta school of Hindu philosophy. The text is part of the Prasthanatrayi, or the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
Vedanta contains many sub-traditions, ranging from dualism to non-dualism, all of which developed on the basis of a common textual connection called the Prasthanatrayi - the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gita.

Ātman (Hinduism)

AtmanĀtmanAtma
The theory of death and rebirth, karma and importance of conduct and free will, and the connection between Atman (Self, Soul) and the Brahman are discussed in sections 3.1 and 3.2 of the text.
The Brahmasutra by Badarayana (~100 BCE) synthesized and unified these somewhat conflicting theories, stating that Atman and Brahman are different in some respects, particularly during the state of ignorance, but at the deepest level and in the state of self-realization, Atman and Brahman are identical, non-different (advaita).

Vaishnavism

VaishnavaVaishnaviteVaishnavaite
The Vedanta schools of Hindu philosophy, that interpreted the Upanishads and the Brahma Sutra, provided the philosophical foundations of Vaishnavism.

Yoga (philosophy)

YogaYoga philosophyphilosophy of yoga
The text reviews and critiques most major orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy as well as all heterodox Indian philosophies such as Buddhism, with the exception of Samkhya and Yoga philosophies which it holds in high regards and recurrently refers to them in all its four chapters, adding in sutras 2.1.3 and 4.2.21 that Yoga and Samkhya are similar.
The Brahma Sutras by Badarayana dated to somewhere between the 5th century BCE and the 2nd century BCE, belonging to the Vedanta school of Hinduism, in chapter 2 assumes the existence of a text called Yoga Smriti.

Problem of evil

the problem of evilevidential problem of evilevidential argument from evil
The sutras 2.1.21 through 2.1.36 present the problem of evil, offering its own doctrine to address it, asserting that Brahman is neither unjust nor cruel, and that inequality and evil exists in the world because of will, choices and circumstances created by actions of living beings over time.
A version of the problem of evil appears in the ancient Brahma Sutras, probably composed between 200 BCE and 200 CE, a foundational text of the Vedanta tradition of Hinduism.

Gaudiya Vaishnavism

Gaudiya VaishnavaGaudiya VaishnavasGaudiya Vaisnava
His student Baladeva Vidyabhushan wrote a famous commentary on the Vedanta-sutra called Govinda Bhashya.

Prasthanatrayi

Prasthana Trayi
The text is part of the Prasthanatrayi, or the three starting points for the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy.
Ramanujacharya did not write any (commentary) on the Upanishads, but Ramanuja wrote (commentaries) on Brahma Sutras and Bhagavad Gita.

Brahman

BrahmBrahmaBrahmam
These verses are primarily about the nature of human existence and universe, and ideas about the metaphysical concept of Ultimate Reality called Brahman.

Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
The first chapter discusses the metaphysics of Absolute Reality, the second chapter reviews and addresses the objections raised by the ideas of competing orthodox schools of Hindu philosophies as well as heterodox schools such as Buddhism and Jainism, the third chapter discusses epistemology and path to gaining spiritually liberating knowledge, and the last chapter states why such a knowledge is an important human need.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
The first chapter discusses the metaphysics of Absolute Reality, the second chapter reviews and addresses the objections raised by the ideas of competing orthodox schools of Hindu philosophies as well as heterodox schools such as Buddhism and Jainism, the third chapter discusses epistemology and path to gaining spiritually liberating knowledge, and the last chapter states why such a knowledge is an important human need.

Jainism

JainJainsJaina
The first chapter discusses the metaphysics of Absolute Reality, the second chapter reviews and addresses the objections raised by the ideas of competing orthodox schools of Hindu philosophies as well as heterodox schools such as Buddhism and Jainism, the third chapter discusses epistemology and path to gaining spiritually liberating knowledge, and the last chapter states why such a knowledge is an important human need.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
The first chapter discusses the metaphysics of Absolute Reality, the second chapter reviews and addresses the objections raised by the ideas of competing orthodox schools of Hindu philosophies as well as heterodox schools such as Buddhism and Jainism, the third chapter discusses epistemology and path to gaining spiritually liberating knowledge, and the last chapter states why such a knowledge is an important human need.