Brahman

BrahmBrahmaBrahmamAksharBramenethe AbsoluteUltimate RealityAbsoluteAll-soulAtman-Brahman
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.wikipedia
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Upanishads

UpanishadUpanishadicUpanisads
Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.
The concepts of Brahman (ultimate reality) and Ātman (soul, self) are central ideas in all of the Upanishads, and "know that you are the Ātman" is their thematic focus.

Advaita Vedanta

AdvaitaAdvaita VedāntaAdvaitha
In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.
The term Advaita refers to its idea that the true self, Atman, is the same as the highest metaphysical Reality (Brahman).

Nondualism

non-dualnondualitynondual
In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.
The oldest traces of nondualism in Indian thought are found in the earlier Hindu Upanishads such as Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, as well as other pre-Buddhist Upanishads such as the Chandogya Upanishad, which emphasizes the unity of individual soul called Atman and the Supreme called Brahman.

Satcitananda

SatchitanandaSat-Chit-AnandaSatchidananda
In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) as well has having a form (Sakar) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality.
Satchitananda (IAST: Saccidānanda) or Sacchidānanda representing "existence, consciousness, and bliss" or "truth, consciousness, bliss", is an epithet and description for the subjective experience of the ultimate, unchanging reality in Hinduism called Brahman.

Absolute (philosophy)

AbsoluteThe AbsoluteUltimate Reality
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school.
According to Glyn Richards, the early texts of Hinduism state that the Brahman or the nondual Brahman–Atman is the Absolute.

Trimurti

Hindu TrinityTrimurthiTrinity
Sanskrit Brahman (an n-stem, nominative ') from a root - "to swell, expand, grow, enlarge" is a neuter noun to be distinguished from the masculine '—denoting a person associated with Brahman, and from Brahmā, the creator God in the Hindu Trinity, the Trimurti.
Its most notable expression is to be found in the theological conception of the, i.e., the manifestation of the supreme God in three forms of,, and ... But the attempt cannot be regarded as a great success, for never gained an ascendancy comparable to that of or, and the different sects often conceived the as really the three manifestations of their own sectarian god, whom they regarded as Brahman or Absolute.

Vishishtadvaita

VishistadvaitaVisishtadvaitaVishishtadvaita Vedanta
Vedanta Desika defines Vishishtadvaita using the statement, Asesha Chit-Achit Prakaaram Brahmaikameva Tatvam : Brahman, as qualified by the sentient and insentient modes (or attributes), is the only reality.

Vedic priesthood

purohitaUdgatrAdhvaryu
The term Brahman in the above hymn 2.1.2 refers to deity Agni of hymn 2.1.1.

Brahmin

BrahminsBrahmansBrahmanas
Brahmin is a varna in Hinduism specialising in theory as priests, preservers and transmitters of sacred literature across generations.
The text lists eight virtues that a Brahmin must inculcate: compassion, patience, lack of envy, purification, tranquility, auspicious disposition, generosity and lack of greed, and then asserts in verse 9.24–9.25, that it is more important to lead a virtuous life than perform rites and rituals, because virtue leads to achieving liberation (moksha, a life in the world of Brahman).

Purusha

PurusaPuruṣaconsciousness
The abstract idea Purusha is extensively discussed in various Upanishads, and referred interchangeably as Paramatman and Brahman (not to be confused with Brahmin).

Universe

physical worldThe Universeuniverses
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.
In other stories, the Universe emanates from fundamental principles, such as Brahman and Prakrti, the creation myth of the Serers, or the yin and yang of the Tao.

Chandogya Upanishad

Chāndogya UpaniṣadChandogyaChhandogya
Max Muller notes that the term "space" above, was later asserted in the Vedanta Sutra verse 1.1.22 to be a symbolism for the Vedic concept of Brahman.

Vedas

VedicVedaVedic literature
Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.
The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads, among other things, interpret and discuss the Samhitas in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute (Brahman), and the soul or the self (Atman), introducing Vedanta philosophy, one of the major trends of later Hinduism.

Para Brahman

NirgunaNirguna BrahmanParabrahma
Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. While Hinduism sub-schools such as Advaita Vedanta emphasize the complete equivalence of Brahman and Atman, they also expound on Brahman as saguna Brahman—the Brahman with attributes, and nirguna Brahman—the Brahman without attributes.
Para Brahman (Sanskrit:परब्रह्मन्) (IAST: ) is the "Highest Brahman" that which is beyond all descriptions and conceptualisations.

Saguna brahman

sagunaGod with attributesMurthi Stage
While Hinduism sub-schools such as Advaita Vedanta emphasize the complete equivalence of Brahman and Atman, they also expound on Brahman as saguna Brahman—the Brahman with attributes, and nirguna Brahman—the Brahman without attributes.
"The Absolute with qualities" ) came from the Sanskrit "with qualities, gunas" and Brahman "the Absolute", close to the concept of immanence, the manifested divine presence.

Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe.
The word Self-consciousness in the Upanishads means the knowledge about the existence and nature of Brahman.

Atharvaveda

Atharva VedaAtharva-VedaAtharva
For example, it is found in Rig veda hymns such as 2.2.10, 6.21.8, 10.72.2 and in Atharva veda hymns such as 6.122.5, 10.1.12, and 14.1.131.
For example, the Book 10 of Paippalada recension is more detailed and observed carefully not doing a single mistake, more developed and more conspicuous in describing monism, the concept of "oneness of Brahman, all life forms and the world".

Ātman (Hinduism)

AtmanĀtmanAtma
Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school.
In order to attain liberation (moksha), a human being must acquire self-knowledge (atma jnana), which is to realize that one's true self (Ātman) is identical with the transcendent self Brahman.

Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosopherdarsanasDarshanas
In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.
This included metaphysical concepts such as ātman and Brahman, and an emphasis on meditation, self-discipline, self-knowledge and abstract spirituality, rather than ritualism.

Maya (religion)

MayaMaya (illusion)māyā
Brahman is the ultimate "eternally, constant" reality, while the observed universe is a different kind of reality but one which is "temporary, changing" Maya in various orthodox Hindu schools.
Māyā pre-exists and co-exists with Brahman – the Ultimate Principle, Consciousness.

Vishnu

Lord VishnuViṣṇuVisnu
The theistic schools assert that moksha is the loving, eternal union or nearness of one's soul with the distinct and separate Brahman (Vishnu, Shiva or equivalent henotheism).
The "preserver" in the Hindu triad (Trimurti), Vishnu is revered as the supreme being In Vaishnavism as identical to the metaphysical concept of Brahman (Atman, the self, or unchanging ultimate reality), and is notable for adopting various incarnations (avatars such as Rama and Krishna) to preserve and protect dharmic principles whenever the world is threatened with evil, chaos, and destructive forces.

Dvaita Vedanta

DvaitaDvaita philosophyDwaita
Those that consider Brahman and Atman as distinct are theistic, and Dvaita Vedanta and later Nyaya schools illustrate this premise.
The Dvaita school contrasts with the other two major sub-schools of Vedanta, the Advaita Vedanta of Adi Shankara which posits nondualism – that ultimate reality (Brahman) and human soul are identical and all reality is interconnected oneness, and Vishishtadvaita of Ramanuja which posits qualified nondualism – that ultimate reality (Brahman) and human soul are different but with the potential to be identical.

Ishvara

IsvaraIshwaraIswara
Riepe, and others, state that schools of Hinduism leave the individual with freedom and choice of conceptualizing Isvara in any meaningful manner he or she wishes, either in the form of "deity of one's choice" or "formless Brahman (Absolute Reality, Universal Principle, true special Self)".

Shiva

Lord ShivaSivaLord Siva
The theistic schools assert that moksha is the loving, eternal union or nearness of one's soul with the distinct and separate Brahman (Vishnu, Shiva or equivalent henotheism).
According to the Shaivism sect, the highest form of Ishvar is formless, limitless, transcendent and unchanging absolute Brahman, and the primal Atman (soul, self) of the universe.

Avatar

avatarsincarnationavatara
The nirguna Brahman is the Brahman as it really is, however, the saguna Brahman is posited as a means to realizing nirguna Brahman, but the Hinduism schools declare saguna Brahman to be a part of the ultimate nirguna Brahman The concept of the saguna Brahman, such as in the form of avatars, is considered in these schools of Hinduism to be a useful symbolism, path and tool for those who are still on their spiritual journey, but the concept is finally cast aside by the fully enlightened.
An avatar, states Justin Edwards Abbott, is a saguna (with form, attributes) embodiment of the nirguna Brahman or Atman (soul).