A report on JainismHinduism and Brahman

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
A Balinese Hindu family after puja at Bratan temple in Bali, Indonesia
(Om) signifies the essence of Brahman, the ultimate reality.
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Om, a stylized letter of Devanagari script, used as a religious symbol in Hinduism
A drop in the ocean: an analogy for Ātman merging into Brahman.
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and the United States, raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.
Swan (Hansa, हंस) is the symbol for Brahman-Atman in Hindu iconography.
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Ganesha is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
The Hare Krishna group at the Esplanadi Park in Helsinki, Finland
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
The festival of lights, Diwali, is celebrated by Hindus all over the world.
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Hindus in Ghana celebrating Ganesh Chaturti
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Holi celebrated at the Sri Sri Radha Krishna Temple in Utah, United States.
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Kedar Ghat, a bathing place for pilgrims on the Ganges at Varanasi
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
Priests performing Kalyanam (marriage) of the holy deities at Bhadrachalam Temple, in Telangana. It is one of the temples in India, where Kalyanam is done everyday throughout the year.
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
A statue of Shiva in yogic meditation.
Basic Hindu symbols: Shatkona, Padma, and Swastika.
Idol of Suparśvanātha
Kauai Hindu monastery in Kauai Island in Hawaii is the only Hindu Monastery in the North American continent.
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
A sadhu in Madurai, India.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The Hindu Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram was built by Narasimhavarman II.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

In this, it is unlike the Abrahamic religions and Hinduism, but similar to Buddhism.

- Jainism

He includes among "founded religions" Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism that are now distinct religions, syncretic movements such as Brahmo Samaj and the Theosophical Society, as well as various "Guru-isms" and new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and ISKCON.

- Hinduism

Buddhism and Carvaka school of Hinduism deny that there exists anything called "a Self" (individual Atman or Brahman in the cosmic sense), while the orthodox schools of Hinduism, Jainism and Ajivikas hold that there exists "a Self".

- Brahman

Brahmin is a varna in Hinduism specialising in theory as priests, preservers and transmitters of sacred literature across generations.

- Brahman

Hindu thought generally discusses Atman and Brahman through a monistic or dualistic framework.

- Jainism

Scholars like Adi Sankara affirm that not only is Brahman beyond all varṇas, the man who is identified with Him also transcends the distinctions and limitations of caste.

- Hinduism
The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

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A depiction of liberated souls at moksha.


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A depiction of liberated souls at moksha.
Gajendra Moksha (pictured) is a symbolic tale in Vaishnavism. The elephant Gajendra enters a lake where a crocodile (Huhu) clutches his leg and becomes his suffering. Despite his pain, Gajendra constantly remembers Vishnu, who then liberates him. Gajendra symbolically represents human beings, Huhu represents sins, and the lake is saṃsāra.
Mokṣha is a key concept in Yoga, where it is a state of “awakening”, liberation and freedom in this life.

Moksha (मोक्ष, ), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism for various forms of emancipation, enlightenment, liberation, and release.

Moksha has been defined not merely as absence of suffering and release from bondage to saṃsāra. Various schools of Hinduism also explain the concept as presence of the state of paripurna-brahmanubhava (the experience of oneness with Brahman, the One Supreme Self), a state of knowledge, peace and bliss.

Four Vedas


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The Vedas (,, वेदः) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.

The Vedas (,, वेदः) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.

Four Vedas
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the Atharvaveda.
Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari
A page from the Taittiriya Samhita, a layer of text within the Yajurveda

Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.

Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Charvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools.

The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads, among other things, interpret and discuss the Samhitas in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute (Brahman), and the soul or the self (Atman), introducing Vedanta philosophy, one of the major trends of later Hinduism.


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Sound of a sacred spiritual symbol in Indic religions.

Sound of a sacred spiritual symbol in Indic religions.

Om in Tamil script with a trishula at Sri Veeramakaliamman Temple, Singapore; Om appears frequently as an icon in temples (mandirs) and spiritual retreats
A rangoli featuring Om surrounded by stylised peacocks; Om often features prominently in the religious art and iconography of Indic religions
Statue depicting Shiva as the Nataraja dancing in a posture resembling the Devangari ligature for Om; Joseph Campbell argued that the Nataraja statue represents Om as a symbol of the entirety of "consciousness, universe" and "the message that God is within a person and without"
Om appears frequently in Hindu texts and scriptures, notably appearing in the first verse of the Rigveda
Om is given many meanings and layers of symbolism in the Upanishads including "the sacred sound, the Yes!, the Vedas, the udgitha (song of the universe), the infinite, the all encompassing, the whole world, the truth, the ultimate reality, the finest essence, the cause of the universe, the essence of life, the Brahman, the Atman (Hinduism), the vehicle of deepest knowledge, and self-knowledge (atma jnana)".
A Pahari painting of Om (ओं), c. 1780-1800, decorated with deities: Shiva and Shakti (could be Vaishnavi or Siddhidatri); Vishnu and Lakshmi seated upon Shesha; Harihara (Vishnu-Shiva fusion deity); Brahma; and Dattatreya as a representation of the Trimurti (top-to-bottom, left-to-right)
Shri Yantra with Om (ௐ) at its center, Sri Mariamman Temple, Singapore; yantras are frequently used as aids in Hindu meditation
The Hindu deity Ganesha is sometimes referred to as "" (Omkara is his form) and used as the symbol for Upanishadic concept of Brahman.
An illustration of Om from a Mahabharata manuscript, 1795, decorated with murtis of Surya, Brahma, and Vishnu to the left, Shakti (could be Maheshwari) on the chandrabindu point, and Shiva (holding a trishula) to the right
Om symbol with a trishula at Kanaka Durga Temple, Vijayawada
Radha and Krishna intertwined with an Om and surrounded by scenes from their life
Painting illustrating the Jain Om symbol, from Jaipur, c. 1840
The mantra om mani padme hum written in Tibetan script on the petals of a sacred lotus around the syllable hrih at the center; Om is written on the top petal in white
Nio statues in Kyoto prefecture of Japan, are interpreted as saying the start (open mouth) and the end (closed mouth) of syllable "AUM"

It is part of the iconography found in ancient and medieval era manuscripts, temples, monasteries, and spiritual retreats in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.

It refers to Atman (Self within) and Brahman (ultimate reality, entirety of the universe, truth, divine, supreme spirit, cosmic principles, knowledge).