A report on JainismBrahman and Nondualism

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
(Om) signifies the essence of Brahman, the ultimate reality.
Purusha-Pakriti
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
A drop in the ocean: an analogy for Ātman merging into Brahman.
The layman Vimalakīrti Debates Manjusri, Dunhuang Mogao Caves
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Swan (Hansa, हंस) is the symbol for Brahman-Atman in Hindu iconography.
Nagarjuna (right), Aryadeva (middle) and the Tenth Karmapa (left).
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Asaṅga (fl. 4th century C.E.), a Mahayana scholar who wrote numerous works which discuss the Yogacara view and practice.
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
Saṃvara with Vajravārāhī in Yab-Yum. These tantric Buddhist depictions of sexual union symbolize the non-dual union of compassion and emptiness.
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
A 3D rendering of Indra's net, an illustration of the Huayan concept of interpenetration.
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Dogen
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Swans are important figures in Advaita
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Ramanuja, founder of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta, taught 'qualified nondualism' doctrine.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
Ramana Maharshi (1879–1950) explained his insight using Shaiva Siddhanta, Advaita Vedanta and Yoga teachings.
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Taijitu
Shikharji
The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine, St John the Baptist, St Antony Abbot
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, the substance of Brahman is identical to the substance of Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.

- Brahman

Souls can be good or evil in Jainism, unlike the nondualism of some forms of Hinduism and Buddhism.

- Jainism

Buddhism and Carvaka school of Hinduism deny that there exists anything called "a Self" (individual Atman or Brahman in the cosmic sense), while the orthodox schools of Hinduism, Jainism and Ajivikas hold that there exists "a Self".

- Brahman

The original and early Buddhist concepts of nirvana may have been similar to those found in competing Śramaṇa (strivers/ascetics) traditions such as Jainism and Upanishadic Vedism.

- Nondualism

Madhyamaka also rejects the existence of absolute realities or beings such as Brahman or Self.

- Nondualism

Hindu thought generally discusses Atman and Brahman through a monistic or dualistic framework.

- Jainism
The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

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Four Vedas

Vedas

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The Vedas (,, वेदः) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.

The Vedas (,, वेदः) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India.

Four Vedas
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the Atharvaveda.
Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari
A page from the Taittiriya Samhita, a layer of text within the Yajurveda

Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Charvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools.

The Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads, among other things, interpret and discuss the Samhitas in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute (Brahman), and the soul or the self (Atman), introducing Vedanta philosophy, one of the major trends of later Hinduism.

The Bhagavata Purana has been among the most celebrated and popular text in the Puranic genre, and is of non-dualistic tenor.

Absolute (philosophy)

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Term used for the ultimate or most supreme being, usually conceived as either encompassing "the sum of all being, actual and potential", or otherwise transcending the concept of "being" altogether.

Term used for the ultimate or most supreme being, usually conceived as either encompassing "the sum of all being, actual and potential", or otherwise transcending the concept of "being" altogether.

In Jainism, Absolute Knowledge or Kewalya Gnan, is said to be attained by the Arihantas and Tirthankaras, who reflects in their knowing the 360 degrees of the truth and events of past, present and future.

According to Glyn Richards, the early texts of Hinduism state that the Brahman or the nondual Brahman–Atman is the Absolute.

The term has also been adopted by Aldous Huxley in his perennial philosophy to interpret various religious traditions, including Indian religions, and influenced other strands of nondualistic and New Age thought.