Brain damage

brain injurybrain injuriesbrain lesionneurotraumabrainbrain-damagedinjurylesionsneurological damagebrain damaged
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.wikipedia
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Acquired brain injury

brain injuryacquired brain injuriesbrain injuries
A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury (TBI) following physical trauma or head injury from an outside source, and the term acquired brain injury (ABI) is used in appropriate circles to differentiate brain injuries occurring after birth from injury, from a genetic disorder, or from a congenital disorder.
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is brain damage caused by events after birth, rather than as part of a genetic or congenital disorder such as fetal alcohol syndrome, perinatal illness or perinatal hypoxia.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
However, the brain is still susceptible to damage, disease, and infection.

Focal and diffuse brain injury

focal brain injuryDiffuse brain injurydiffuse
Primary and secondary brain injuries identify the processes involved, while focal and diffuse brain injury describe the severity and localization.
Focal and diffuse brain injury are ways to classify brain injury: focal injury occurs in a specific location, while diffuse injury occurs over a more widespread area.

Neuroplasticity

plasticityneural plasticitybrain plasticity
Recent research has demonstrated that neuroplasticity, which allows the brain to reorganize itself by forming new neural connections throughout life, provides for rearrangement of its workings.
Behavior, environmental stimuli, thought, and emotions may also cause neuroplastic change through activity-dependent plasticity, which has significant implications for healthy development, learning, memory, and recovery from brain damage.

Head injury

head traumahead injurieshead
A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury (TBI) following physical trauma or head injury from an outside source, and the term acquired brain injury (ABI) is used in appropriate circles to differentiate brain injuries occurring after birth from injury, from a genetic disorder, or from a congenital disorder.
Brain injury can occur at the site of impact, but can also be at the opposite side of the skull due to a contrecoup effect (the impact to the head can cause the brain to move within the skull, causing the brain to impact the interior of the skull opposite the head-impact).

Persistent vegetative state

vegetative statevegetativevegetable
The most severe cases result in coma or even persistent vegetative state.
A persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness in which patients with severe brain damage are in a state of partial arousal rather than true awareness.

Neurotoxicity

neurotoxicneurotoxinneurotoxins
In general, brain damage refers to significant, undiscriminating trauma-induced damage, while neurotoxicity typically refers to selective, chemically induced neuron damage.
The term neurotoxicity implies the involvement of a neurotoxin; however, the term neurotoxic may be used more loosely to describe states that are known to cause physical brain damage, but where no specific neurotoxin has been identified.

Prosopagnosia

face blindnessinability to recognize facesAssociative prosopagnosia
Lesions to the fusiform gyrus often result in prosopagnosia, the inability to distinguish faces and other complex objects from each other.
The term originally referred to a condition following acute brain damage (acquired prosopagnosia), but a congenital or developmental form of the disorder also exists, which may affect up to 2.5% of people.

Lesion

lesionsbrain lesionslesion studies
Lesion size is correlated with severity, recovery, and comprehension.
For example, a "skin lesion" or a "brain lesion" are named for the tissue where they are found.

Injury

traumainjuriesphysical trauma
A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury (TBI) following physical trauma or head injury from an outside source, and the term acquired brain injury (ABI) is used in appropriate circles to differentiate brain injuries occurring after birth from injury, from a genetic disorder, or from a congenital disorder.

Amnesia

memory lossamnesiacamnesic
Due to loss of blood flow or damaged tissue, sustained during the injury, amnesia and aphasia may become permanent, and apraxia has been documented in patients.
Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, but it can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

Neuron

neuronsnerve cellsnerve cell
Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. In general, brain damage refers to significant, undiscriminating trauma-induced damage, while neurotoxicity typically refers to selective, chemically induced neuron damage.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

dementia pugilisticaCTEPunchdrunk
Research in brain damage as a result of repeated head injuries began in the 1920s, at which time the condition was known as dementia pugilistica or "punch drunk syndrome".

Dysgraphia

Dysgraphia, agraphiaDisorder of Written Expressiondysgraphic
Damage to the Broca’s area typically produces symptoms like omitting functional words (agrammatism), sound production changes, dyslexia, dysgraphia, and problems with comprehension and production.
Dysgraphia should be distinguished from agraphia, which is an acquired loss of the ability to write resulting from brain injury, stroke, or progressive illness.

Epilepsy

epilepticseizure disorderepilepsies
Brain lesions are sometimes intentionally inflicted during neurosurgery, such as the carefully placed brain lesion used to treat epilepsy and other brain disorders.
Some cases occur as the result of brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, infections of the brain, or birth defects through a process known as epileptogenesis.

Neurological disorder

neurological disordersneurological diseaseneurological
The specific causes of neurological problems vary, but can include genetic disorders, congenital abnormalities or disorders, infections, lifestyle or environmental health problems including malnutrition, and brain injury, spinal cord injury, nerve injury and gluten sensitivity (with or without intestinal damage or digestive symptoms).

Primary and secondary brain injury

secondary brain injuryprimary and secondary injurySecondary injury
Primary and secondary brain injuries identify the processes involved, while focal and diffuse brain injury describe the severity and localization.
Ischemia is one of the leading causes of secondary brain damage after head trauma.

Coma

comatoseunresponsivecomatose state
The most severe cases result in coma or even persistent vegetative state.
For example, after four months of coma caused by brain damage, the chance of partial recovery is less than 15%, and the chance of full recovery is very low.

Neologism

neologismscoinedneologistic
Wernicke's aphasia is associated with anomia, unknowingly making up words (neologisms), and problems with comprehension.
The use of neologisms may also be due to aphasia acquired after brain damage resulting from a stroke or head injury.

Agrammatism

agrammatic
Damage to the Broca’s area typically produces symptoms like omitting functional words (agrammatism), sound production changes, dyslexia, dysgraphia, and problems with comprehension and production.
Although Bastiaanse's et al. (subm.) conclusions are not as broad as Avruitin's (2000) and do not strictly look at tense but at time reference, they are supported by several findings: Bastiaanse et al., (2009) and Faroqi-Shah & Dickey (2009) found more problems with verb forms and aspectual adverbs referring to the past in agrammatic aphasic individuals; Jonkers et al., (2007) and Faroqi-Shah & Dickey (2009) reflected longer RTs in non-brain-damaged individuals; and Dragoy et al. (in preparation) are about to present an ERP and an RT experiment of tense violations in Dutch where they have found higher error rates and longer reaction times for the violations by a past tense verb in contrast with present tense.

Penetrating head injury

penetrating head traumahead injuries, penetratingopen head injury
Penetrating head trauma can cause impairment or loss of abilities controlled by parts of the brain that are damaged.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

fetal alcohol syndromefetal alcohol spectrum disordersfoetal alcohol syndrome
The presence of FAS facial features indicates brain damage, although brain damage may also exist in their absence.

Skull

craniumcranialhuman skull
The person may need surgery to remove clotted blood or repair skull fractures, for which cutting a hole in the skull may be necessary.
In these cases the raised intracranial pressure can cause herniation of the brain out of the foramen magnum ("coning") because there is no space for the brain to expand; this can result in significant brain damage or death unless an urgent operation is performed to relieve the pressure.

Cerebral cortex

cortexcorticalsubcortical
This is because different cortical areas mature at different stages, with some major cell populations and their corresponding cognitive faculties remaining unrefined until early adulthood.
Brain damage from disease or trauma, can involve damage to a specific lobe such as in frontal lobe disorder, and associated functions will be affected.

Encephalopathy

encephalomyopathyencephalopathiesstatic encephalopathy
Sympathomimetic drugs can increase motivation, cognition, motor performance and alertness in persons with encephalopathy caused by brain injury, chronic infections, strokes, brain tumors.