Brain ischemia

cerebral ischemiacerebral ischaemiaischemic strokeacute cerebral ischemiaacute ischemic strokeblockage or narrowingblood clots in the brainbraincerebral hypoperfusioncerebral ischemia/infarction
Brain ischemia (a.k.a. cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular ischemia) is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand.wikipedia
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Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
This leads to poor oxygen supply or cerebral hypoxia and thus to the death of brain tissue or cerebral infarction / ischemic stroke. Other effects that may result from brain ischemia are stroke, cardiorespiratory arrest, and irreversible brain damage.
There are two main types of stroke: ischemic, due to lack of blood flow, and hemorrhagic, due to bleeding.

Cerebral infarction

cerebral infarctbrain infarctionblockage of a blood vessel in the brain
This leads to poor oxygen supply or cerebral hypoxia and thus to the death of brain tissue or cerebral infarction / ischemic stroke.
A cerebral infarction is an area of necrotic tissue in the brain resulting from a blockage or narrowing in the arteries supplying blood and oxygen to the brain.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

subarachnoid haemorrhagesubarachnoidsubarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic
It is a sub-type of stroke along with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage.

Moyamoya disease

moyamoya
Recently, Moyamoya disease has also been identified as a potential cause for brain ischemia.
The clinical features are strokes, recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), sensorimotor paralysis (numbness and paralysis of the extremities), convulsions and/or migraine-like headaches.

Cerebrovascular disease

cerebrovascularcerebrovascular diseasescerebrovascular disorders
Moyamoya disease is an extremely rare cerebrovascular condition that limits blood circulation to the brain, consequently leading to oxygen deprivation.
Ischemic stroke, the most common is caused by a blockage of a blood vessel in the brain, usually caused by thrombosis or emboli from a proximal arterial source or the heart, that leads to the brain being starved of oxygen. The neurologic signs and symptoms must last longer than 24 hours or the brain infarction is demonstrated, mainly by imaging techniques.

Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain

Mechanism of anoxic depolarization in the brain
Anoxic depolarization is a progressive and uncontrollable depolarization of neurons during stroke or brain ischemia in which there is an inadequate supply of blood to the brain.

Watershed stroke

Bilateral Watershed Strokewatershed infarctionwatershed region
Watershed stroke
A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as a brain ischemia that is localized to the vulnerable border zones between the tissues supplied by the anterior, posterior and middle cerebral arteries.

Strangling

strangulationstrangledstrangle
Other causes associated with brain hypoxia include drowning, strangling, choking, cardiac arrest, head trauma, and complications during general anesthesia.
Depending on the particular method of strangulation, one or several of these typically occur in combination; vascular obstruction is usually the main mechanism.

Carbon monoxide poisoning

carbon monoxidecarbon monoxide inhalationcarbon monoxide toxicity
Potential causes of brain hypoxia are suffocation, carbon monoxide poisoning, severe anemia, and use of drugs such as cocaine and other amphetamines.
This causes reduced cardiac output and hypotension, which may result in brain ischemia.

Intracerebral hemorrhage

cerebral hemorrhagebrain hemorrhagecerebral haemorrhage
It is a sub-type of stroke along with subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage.

Visual perception

visionsighteyesight
The main symptoms involve impairments in vision, body movement, and speaking.

Speech

spokenspeakingoral
The main symptoms involve impairments in vision, body movement, and speaking.

Sickle cell disease

sickle cell anemiasickle-cell diseasesickle-cell anemia
The causes of brain ischemia vary from sickle cell anemia to congenital heart defects.

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseaseheart defectcongenital heart defects
The causes of brain ischemia vary from sickle cell anemia to congenital heart defects.

Brain

brain functionmammalian braincerebral
Brain ischemia (a.k.a. cerebral ischemia, cerebrovascular ischemia) is a condition in which there is insufficient blood flow to the brain to meet metabolic demand.

Thrombosis

blood clotsthromboticblood clot
Brain ischemia can be further subdivided, by cause, into thrombotic, embolic, and hypoperfusion.

Embolism

emboliemboluscerebral embolism
Brain ischemia can be further subdivided, by cause, into thrombotic, embolic, and hypoperfusion.

Thrombus

blood clotblood clotsclot
Focal brain ischemia occurs when a blood clot has occluded a cerebral vessel.

Cerebral circulation

cerebral blood flowblood flow to the braincerebral vasculature
Focal brain ischemia occurs when a blood clot has occluded a cerebral vessel.

Cell death

diedeathcell killing
Focal brain ischemia reduces blood flow to a specific brain region, increasing the risk of cell death to that particular area.

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
Other causes associated with brain hypoxia include drowning, strangling, choking, cardiac arrest, head trauma, and complications during general anesthesia. Other effects that may result from brain ischemia are stroke, cardiorespiratory arrest, and irreversible brain damage.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
Moyamoya disease is an extremely rare cerebrovascular condition that limits blood circulation to the brain, consequently leading to oxygen deprivation. If sufficient circulation is restored within a short period of time, symptoms may be transient.

Reperfusion therapy

reperfusioneperfusionreperfused
While reperfusion may be essential to protecting as much brain tissue as possible, it may also lead to reperfusion injury.

Reperfusion injury

reperfusionischemic reperfusion injuryischemia-reperfusion injury
While reperfusion may be essential to protecting as much brain tissue as possible, it may also lead to reperfusion injury.

Internal carotid artery

internal carotid arteriesinternal carotidinternal
Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, weakness in one arm or leg, or weakness in one entire side of the body.