Brain tumor

brain cancerbrain tumourbrain tumorsbrainbrain tumourstumorsintracranial tumorcancer of the braintumorbrain cancers
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.wikipedia
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Benign tumor

benignbenign tumourbenign neoplasm
There are two main types of tumors: cancerous (malignant) tumors and benign (non-cancerous) tumors.
Unlike most benign tumors elsewhere in the body, benign brain tumors can be life threatening.

Brain metastasis

brain metastasescerebral metastasis
Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors, which start within the brain, and secondary tumors, which have spread from elsewhere, known as brain metastasis tumors.
A brain metastasis is a cancer that has metastasized (spread) to the brain from another location in the body and is therefore considered a secondary brain tumor.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problems with vision, vomiting and mental changes.
Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may be present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.
The brain can also be the site of tumours, both benign and malignant; these mostly originate from other sites in the body.

Astrocytoma

astrocytomasbrain tumorastrocytic neoplasms
The most common types of primary tumors in adults are meningiomas (usually benign) and astrocytomas such as glioblastomas. Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Colloid cyst, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal tumor, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma multiforme, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Trilateral retinoblastoma.

Medulloblastoma

medulloblastomascancer of the brain and spine
In children, the most common type is a malignant medulloblastoma. Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Colloid cyst, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal tumor, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma multiforme, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Trilateral retinoblastoma.
Medulloblastoma is the most common type of primary brain cancer in children.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Treatment may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
The overall effectiveness ranges from being curative for some cancers, such as some leukemias, to being ineffective, such as in some brain tumors, to being needless in others, like most non-melanoma skin cancers.

Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizures
These symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problems with vision, vomiting and mental changes.

Broca's area

BrocaBroca’s areaBroca's region
However, slow destruction of the Broca's area by brain tumors can leave speech relatively intact, suggesting its functions can shift to nearby areas in the brain.

Intracranial pressure

increased intracranial pressureintracranial hypertensionpressure inside the skull
Headaches as a result of raised intracranial pressure can be an early symptom of brain cancer.

Dexamethasone

Decadrondexamethasone phosphateOradexon
Dexamethasone and furosemide are medications that may be used to decrease swelling around the tumor.
In brain tumors (primary or metastatic), dexamethasone is used to counteract the development of edema, which could eventually compress other brain structures.

Mobile phone radiation and health

Wireless electronic devices and healthmobile phone radiationaffects the incidence
Studies on mobile phone exposure have not shown a clear risk.
In the US, personal injury lawsuits have been filed by individuals against cellphone manufacturers (including Motorola, NEC, Siemens, and Nokia) on the basis of allegations of causation of brain cancer and death.

Pilocytic astrocytoma

Benign astrocytomaCystic cerebellar astrocytomaspilocytic
Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Colloid cyst, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal tumor, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma multiforme, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Trilateral retinoblastoma.
A pilocytic astrocytoma (and its variant juvenile pilomyxoid astrocytoma) is a brain tumor that occurs more often in children and young adults (in the first 20 years of life).

Glioma

gliomasmalignant gliomapontine glioma
Primary tumors of the glial cells are called gliomas and often are malignant by the time they are diagnosed.
Gliomas comprise about 30 percent of all brain tumors and central nervous system tumours, and 80 percent of all malignant brain tumours.

Glioblastoma

glioblastoma multiformeglioblastomasbrain cancer
The most common types of primary tumors in adults are meningiomas (usually benign) and astrocytomas such as glioblastomas. Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Colloid cyst, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal tumor, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma multiforme, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Trilateral retinoblastoma.
Glioblastomas represent 15% of brain tumors.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
There are two main types of tumors: cancerous (malignant) tumors and benign (non-cancerous) tumors.
In children, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors are most common, except in Africa where non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs more often.

Meningioma

meningiomasAnaplastic meningiomabenign brain tumor
The most common types of primary tumors in adults are meningiomas (usually benign) and astrocytomas such as glioblastomas.
In this group they represent about 30% of brain tumors.

Ataxia

gluten ataxiaataxicloss of coordination
A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence of either slowly evolving or the sudden onset of focal neurologic symptoms, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment (including impaired judgment, memory loss, lack of recognition, spatial orientation disorders), personality or emotional changes, hemiparesis, hypoesthesia, aphasia, ataxia, visual field impairment, impaired sense of smell, impaired hearing, facial paralysis, double vision, or more severe symptoms such as tremors, paralysis on one side of the body hemiplegia, or (epileptic) seizures in a patient with a negative history for epilepsy, should raise the possibility of a brain tumor.
Any type of focal lesion of the central nervous system (such as stroke, brain tumor, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory [such as sarcoidosis], and “chronic lymphocytyc inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids syndrome” [CLIPPERS ]) will cause the type of ataxia corresponding to the site of the lesion: cerebellar if in the cerebellum; sensory if in the dorsal spinal cord...to include cord compression by thickened ligamentum flavum or stenosis of the boney spinal canal...(and rarely in the thalamus or parietal lobe); or vestibular if in the vestibular system (including the vestibular areas of the cerebral cortex).

Dura mater

duraduralcovering of the spinal cord
This three-layered covering is composed of (from the outside in) the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.
Intradural procedures, such as removal of a brain tumour, or treatment of trigeminal neuralgia via a microvascular decompression require that an incision is made to the dura mater.

Central neurocytoma

Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Colloid cyst, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal tumor, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma multiforme, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Trilateral retinoblastoma.
Central neurocytoma (CNC) is an extremely rare, ordinarily benign intraventricular brain tumour that typically forms from the neuronal cells of the septum pellucidum.

Metastasis

metastaticmetastasesmetastasized
Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors, which start within the brain, and secondary tumors, which have spread from elsewhere, known as brain metastasis tumors.
Some cancers—such as some forms of leukemia, a cancer of the blood, or malignancies in the brain—can kill without spreading at all.

Cancer immunotherapy

immunotherapyimmunooncologyimmuno-oncology
Treatments that use a person's immune system are being studied.
GD2 is a ganglioside found on the surface of many types of cancer cell including neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, melanoma, small cell lung cancer, brain tumors, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, liposarcoma, fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma and other soft tissue sarcomas.

Hemiparesis

hemiplegiahemiplegicweakness of half the body
A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence of either slowly evolving or the sudden onset of focal neurologic symptoms, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment (including impaired judgment, memory loss, lack of recognition, spatial orientation disorders), personality or emotional changes, hemiparesis, hypoesthesia, aphasia, ataxia, visual field impairment, impaired sense of smell, impaired hearing, facial paralysis, double vision, or more severe symptoms such as tremors, paralysis on one side of the body hemiplegia, or (epileptic) seizures in a patient with a negative history for epilepsy, should raise the possibility of a brain tumor.

Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour

dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumordysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors
Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Colloid cyst, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal tumor, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma multiforme, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Trilateral retinoblastoma.
Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNT, DNET) is a type of brain tumor.

Medulloepithelioma

Anaplastic astrocytoma, Astrocytoma, Central neurocytoma, Choroid plexus carcinoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Choroid plexus tumor, Colloid cyst, Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour, Ependymal tumor, Fibrillary astrocytoma, Giant-cell glioblastoma, Glioblastoma multiforme, Gliomatosis cerebri, Gliosarcoma, Hemangiopericytoma, Medulloblastoma, Medulloepithelioma, Meningeal carcinomatosis, Neuroblastoma, Neurocytoma, Oligoastrocytoma, Oligodendroglioma, Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic anaplastic neuroblastoma, Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Sphenoid wing meningioma, Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, Subependymoma, Trilateral retinoblastoma.
Medulloepithelioma is a rare, primitive, fast-growing brain tumour thought to stem from cells of the embryonic medullary cavity.