A report on Brazil and Constitution

Constitution of the Year XII (First French Republic)
Constitution of the Kingdom of Naples in 1848.
Depiction of Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Porto Seguro in 1500, ushering in more than 300 years of Portuguese rule of Colonial Brazil.
Detail from Hammurabi's stele shows him receiving the laws of Babylon from the seated sun deity.
Diagram illustrating the classification of constitutions by Aristotle.
Painting showing the arrest of Tiradentes; he was sentenced to death for his involvement in the best known movement for independence in Colonial Brazil. Painting of 1914.
Third volume of the compilation of Catalan Constitutions of 1585
The Acclamation of King João VI of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in Rio de Janeiro, 6 February 1818
The Cossack Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk, 1710.
Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Prince Pedro (later Emperor Pedro I) on 7 September 1822.
A painting depicting George Washington at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 signing of the U.S. Constitution
Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil between 1831 and 1889.
Constitution of May 3, 1791 (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). Polish King Stanisław August (left, in regal ermine-trimmed cloak), enters St. John's Cathedral, where Sejm deputies will swear to uphold the new Constitution; in background, Warsaw's Royal Castle, where the Constitution has just been adopted.
Soldiers of the FEB, the only Latin American military force in World War II, in Massarosa, Italy, 1944.
Presidential copy of the Russian Constitution.
Ulysses Guimarães holding the Constitution of 1988 in his hands
Magna Carta
Coin of 1 real commemorating 25 years of Real Plan, which brought stability to the Brazilian economy after years of hyperinflation.
United States Constitution
Topographic map of Brazil
Rock formations and the Dedo de Deus (God's Finger) peak in the background, Serra dos Órgãos National Park, Rio de Janeiro state
Brazil map of Köppen climate classification zones
Female pantanal jaguar in Piquirí River, Mato Grosso. Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland area.
The Amazon rainforest, the most biodiverse rainforest in the world
Palácio do Planalto, the official workplace of the President of Brazil.
National Congress, seat of the legislative branch.
Supreme Federal Court of Brazil serves primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country
Itamaraty Palace, the seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Field agents of the Federal Police's Tactical Operations Command.
A proportional representation of Brazil exports, 2019
SUS official symbol, the Brazilian publicly funded health care system
Historical building of the Federal University of Paraná, one of the oldest universities in Brazil, located in Curitiba.
Former President Dilma Rousseff at Jornal Nacional news program. Rede Globo is the world's second-largest commercial television network.
Population density of Brazilian municipalities
Immigration Museum of the State of São Paulo in the neighborhood of Mooca, in São Paulo city. The Italian Brazilians are 15% of the population and the largest Italian community outside Italy.
The Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro is one of the most famous religious statues worldwide
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo city, São Paulo.
Ocas of the Kuikuro people, Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso
Pomerode, Santa Catarina, is one of the municipalities with a cooficial language. In this region, Hunsrückisch and East Pomeranian, German dialects, are two of the minor languages (see Brazilian German).
Parade of Portela samba school at the Rio Carnival, the largest carnival in the world
Tom Jobim, one of the creators of bossa nova, and Chico Buarque, one of the leading names of MPB.
Machado de Assis, poet and novelist, founder of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Festival de Gramado, the biggest film festival in the country
São Paulo Municipal Theater, significant both for its architectural value as well as for its historical importance.
Candido Portinari in 1962, one of the most important Brazilian painters
Players at the podium with the first Olympic Gold of the Brazil national football team, won in the 2016 Summer Olympics. Football is the most popular sport in the country.
Brazil's tropical primary (old-growth) forest loss greatly exceeds that of other countries (compare rectangular areas), though its percentage loss is about the median among the ten countries with the greatest loss.
Rock art at Serra da Capivara National Park, one of the largest and oldest concentrations of prehistoric sites in the Americas.
Palácio do Planalto, the official workplace of the President of Brazil.
Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Prince Pedro (later Emperor Pedro I) on 7 September 1822.
The Cathedral of Brasilia, designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer for the federal capital, an example of Modern architecture
Brazil's tropical primary (old-growth) forest loss greatly exceeds that of other countries
Feijoada is one of the main dishes of Brazilian cuisine
Augusto Boal presenting a workshop on the Theatre of the Oppressed at Riverside Church in New York City in 2008

In Brazil, the Constitution of 1824 expressed the option for the monarchy as political system after Brazilian Independence.

- Constitution

The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems.

- Brazil

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The pathway of regional integration or separation

Federation

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Political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism).

Political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government (federalism).

The pathway of regional integration or separation
A map of the Russian Federation, showing its eighty-three federal subjects before the annexation of Crimea in 2014.
A map of Brazil, showing its twenty-six constituent states and the Federal District.
A map of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, showing its 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory.
A map of the United Mexican States (Mexico), showing its thirty-one constituent states and the Mexico City.
A map of the United States of America showing its fifty constituent states and the District of Columbia.
A map of Canada showing its ten provinces and three territories.
A map of Australia showing its six states and ten territories.
A political map of India showing 28 states and 8 union territories including the National Capital Territory.
A map of the Federal Republic of Germany showing its sixteen constituent states (Länder) including three city-states.
The Swiss Confederation and its 26 cantons.
The Autonomous communities of Spain.
Provinces of South Africa.
The United Provinces of Central America was a short-lived federal republic
Federal states
Unitary states

In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision, neither by the component states nor the federal political body.

Federations are often multi-ethnic and cover a large area of territory (such as Russia, the United States, Canada, India, or Brazil), but neither is necessarily the case (such as Saint Kitts and Nevis or the Federated States of Micronesia).

Constitution of Brazil

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The original copy of the Constitution
First version of the current Brazilian Constitution
Roberto Campos, one of the few voices to rise up against the 1988 Constitution at the time of its creation
2017 edition of the Constitution

The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil) is the supreme law of Brazil.

A person casts their vote in the second round of the 2007 French presidential election.

Democracy

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Form of government in which the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to choose governing officials to do so ("representative democracy").

Form of government in which the people have the authority to deliberate and decide legislation ("direct democracy"), or to choose governing officials to do so ("representative democracy").

A person casts their vote in the second round of the 2007 French presidential election.
Democracy's de facto status in the world as of 2020, according to Democracy Index by The Economist
Democracy's de jure status in the world as of 2020; only Saudi Arabia, Oman, the UAE, Qatar, Brunei, Afghanistan, and the Vatican do not claim to be a democracy.
Nineteenth-century painting by Philipp Foltz depicting the Athenian politician Pericles delivering his famous funeral oration in front of the Assembly.
Magna Carta, 1215, England
John Locke expanded on Thomas Hobbes's social contract theory and developed the concept of natural rights, the right to private property and the principle of consent of the governed. His ideas form the ideological basis of liberal democracies today.
Statue of Athena, the patron goddess of Athens, in front of the Austrian Parliament Building. Athena has been used as an international symbol of freedom and democracy since at least the late eighteenth century.
The establishment of universal male suffrage in France in 1848 was an important milestone in the history of democracy.
The number of nations 1800–2003 scoring 8 or higher on Polity IV scale, another widely used measure of democracy
Corazon Aquino taking the Oath of Office, becoming the first female president in Asia
Age of democracies at the end of 2015
Meeting of the Grand Committee of the Parliament of Finland in 2008.
Countries autocratizing (red) or democratizing (blue) substantially and significantly (2010–2020). Countries in grey are substantially unchanged.
designated "electoral democracies" in Freedom House's Freedom in the World 2021 survey, covering the year 2020.
A Landsgemeinde (in 2009) of the canton of Glarus, an example of direct democracy in Switzerland
In Switzerland, without needing to register, every citizen receives ballot papers and information brochures for each vote (and can send it back by post). Switzerland has a direct democracy system and votes (and elections) are organised about four times a year; here, to Berne's citizen in November 2008 about 5 national, 2 cantonal, 4 municipal referendums, and 2 elections (government and parliament of the City of Berne) to take care of at the same time.
Queen Elizabeth II, a constitutional monarch
Banner in Hong Kong asking for democracy, August 2019

In the common variant of liberal democracy, the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority—usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech or freedom of association.

Fascism and dictatorships flourished in Nazi Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal, as well as non-democratic governments in the Baltics, the Balkans, Brazil, Cuba, China, and Japan, among others.

Presidential system

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Form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

Form of government in which a head of government, typically with the title of president, leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch in systems that use separation of powers.

These countries modeled their constitutions after that of the United States, and the presidential system became the dominant political system in the Americas.

🇧🇷 Brazil