Breakup of Yugoslavia

dissolution of Yugoslaviabreak-up of Yugoslaviabreakupdissolution of SFR YugoslaviaYugoslavia disintegrateddisintegration of YugoslaviadissolvedYugoslaviadisintegratedbroke up
The breakup of Yugoslavia occurred as a result of a series of political upheavals and conflicts during the early 1990s.wikipedia
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Socialist Republic of Macedonia

SR MacedoniaMacedoniaPeople's Republic of Macedonia
After the Allied victory in World War II, Yugoslavia was set up as a federation of six republics, with borders drawn along ethnic and historical lines: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia.
After the transition of the political system to parliamentary democracy in 1990, the Republic changed its official name to Republic of Macedonia in 1991, and with the beginning of the breakup of Yugoslavia, it declared itself an independent country on 8 September 1991.

Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina

VojvodinaSAP VojvodinaAutonomous Province of Vojvodina
In addition, two autonomous provinces were established within Serbia: Vojvodina and Kosovo.
The Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Војводина; often abbreviated SAP Vojvodina) was one of two political entities formed in Yugoslavia after World War II and one of the two autonomous provinces of Serbia within the Yugoslavia (the other being the Kosovo), between 1945 and the breakup of Yugoslavia.

League of Communists of Yugoslavia

Communist Party of YugoslaviaCommunist PartyPresident of the Presidium of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Each of the republics had its own branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia party and a ruling elite, and any tensions were solved on the federal level.
After the liberation from foreign occupation in 1945, the party consolidated its power and established a single-party state, which existed until the 1990 breakup of Yugoslavia.

Yugoslav Wars

Yugoslav WarwarYugoslavia
After a period of political and economic crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unresolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of separate but related ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought in the former Yugoslavia from 1991 to 2001, which led to the breakup of the Yugoslav state.

Bosnian War

war in Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosniaWar in Bosnia
The wars primarily affected Bosnia and Herzegovina, neighbouring parts of Croatia and, some years later, Kosovo.
The war was part of the breakup of Yugoslavia.

Slobodan Milošević

Slobodan MilosevicMiloševićSlobodan Milosević
In 1987, Slobodan Milošević came to power in Serbia, and through a series of populist moves acquired de facto control over Kosovo, Vojvodina, and Montenegro, garnering a high level of support among Serbs for his centralist policies.
The constituent republics of the country split apart amid the outbreak of wars, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was founded by the former Yugoslav republics of Serbia and Montenegro.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
Milošević was met with opposition by party leaders of the western republics of Slovenia and Croatia, who also advocated greater democratisation of the country in line with the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe.
By 1992, Yugoslavia had split into five successor states, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Slovenia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was later renamed Serbia and Montenegro in 2003 and eventually split in 2006 into two states, Serbia and Montenegro.

Adriatic Sea

AdriaticAdriatic coastThe Adriatic
Yugoslavia occupied a significant portion of the Balkan peninsula, including a strip of land on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, stretching southward from the Bay of Trieste in Central Europe to the mouth of Bojana as well as Lake Prespa inland, and eastward as far as the Iron Gates on the Danube and Midžor in the Balkan Mountains, thus including a large part of Southeast Europe, a region with a history of ethnic conflict.
The former disintegrated during the 1990s, resulting in four new states on the Adriatic coast.

Balkans

Balkan PeninsulaBalkanWestern Balkans
Yugoslavia occupied a significant portion of the Balkan peninsula, including a strip of land on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, stretching southward from the Bay of Trieste in Central Europe to the mouth of Bojana as well as Lake Prespa inland, and eastward as far as the Iron Gates on the Danube and Midžor in the Balkan Mountains, thus including a large part of Southeast Europe, a region with a history of ethnic conflict.
After the dissolution of Yugoslavia beginning in June 1991, the term "Balkans" acquired a negative political meaning, especially in Croatia and Slovenia, as well in worldwide casual usage for war conflicts and fragmentation of a territory (see Balkanization).

Bosnia and Herzegovina

BosniaBosnia-HerzegovinaBosnian
During World War II, the country's tensions were exploited by the occupying Axis forces which established a Croat puppet state spanning much of present-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic [[Breakup of Yugoslavia#Independence of the Republic of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina|proclaimed independence]] in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995.

Albanians

AlbanianAlbanian peopleethnic Albanian
This constitution broke down powers between the capital and the autonomous regions in Vojvodina (an area of Yugoslavia with a large number of ethnic minorities) and Kosovo (with a large ethnic-Albanian population).
Though in neighbouring Yugoslavia, Albanians underwent periods of discrimination that concluded with the Breakup of Yugoslavia and eventually the Independence of Kosovo.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

SFR YugoslaviaYugoslaviaFPR Yugoslavia
After a period of political and economic crisis in the 1980s, constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia split apart, but the unresolved issues caused bitter inter-ethnic Yugoslav wars.
The federation collapsed along federal borders, followed by the start of the Yugoslav Wars, and the final downfall and breakup of the federation on 27 April 1992.

Yugoslavia

YugoslavJugoslaviaHistory of Yugoslavia
Despite the federal structure of the new Yugoslavia, there was still tension between the federalists, primarily Croats and Slovenes who argued for greater autonomy, and unitarists, primarily Serbs.
After an economic and political crisis in the 1980s and the rise of nationalism, Yugoslavia broke up along its republics' borders, at first into five countries, leading to the Yugoslav Wars.

SANU Memorandum

Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Artsmemorandum1986 Memorandum
In 1986, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU) contributed significantly to the rise of nationalist sentiments, as it drafted the controversial SANU Memorandum protesting against the weakening of the Serbian central government.
Some consider its publication to be a key moment in the breakup of Yugoslavia and a contributor to the Yugoslav wars.

Socialist Republic of Croatia

SR CroatiaCroatiaPR Croatia
After the Allied victory in World War II, Yugoslavia was set up as a federation of six republics, with borders drawn along ethnic and historical lines: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia.
The newly elected government of Franjo Tuđman moved the republic towards independence, formally seceding from Yugoslavia in 1991 and thereby contributing to its dissolution.

Socialist Republic of Serbia

SR SerbiaPR SerbiaSerbia
After the Allied victory in World War II, Yugoslavia was set up as a federation of six republics, with borders drawn along ethnic and historical lines: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia.
The rising antagonism eventually resulted in the dissolution of the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1990, and subsequently in the breakup of Yugoslavia.

Yugoslav People's Army

Yugoslav ArmyJNAYugoslav National Army
This angered Serbia's leadership which proceeded to use police force, and later the federal army (the Yugoslav People's Army JNA) by order of the Serbian-controlled Presidency.
The dissolution of Yugoslavia began when independent, non-communist governments were established in the Yugoslav republics of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia.

Non-Aligned Movement

Nonaligned MovementNAMnon-aligned
Yugoslavia's non-aligned status resulted in access to loans from both superpower blocs.
After the breakup of Yugoslavia, a founding member, its membership was suspended in 1992 at the regular Ministerial Meeting of the Movement, held in New York during the regular yearly session of the General Assembly of the United Nations.

The Death of Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia: Death of a Nationaccompanying 1995 BBC television documentary seriestelevision series of the same name
In the 1995 BBC documentary The Death of Yugoslavia, Kučan claimed that in 1989, he was concerned that with the successes of Milošević's anti-bureaucratic revolution in Serbia's provinces as well as Montenegro, that his small republic would be the next target for a political coup by Milošević's supporters if the coup in Kosovo went unimpeded.
It covers the collapse of Yugoslavia, the subsequent wars and the signing of the final peace accords.

History of Serbia

SerbiahistorySerbian history
In June 1989, the 600th anniversary of Serbia's historic defeat at the field of Kosovo, Slobodan Milošević gave the Gazimestan speech to 200,000 Serbs, with a Serb nationalist theme which deliberately evoked medieval Serbian history.
After the dissolution of Yugoslavia in a series of wars in the 1990s, Serbia once again became an independent state on 5 June 2006, following the breakup of a short-lived union with Montenegro.

Croatia

Republic of CroatiaCroatianCRO
During World War II, the country's tensions were exploited by the occupying Axis forces which established a Croat puppet state spanning much of present-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
It declared independence on 8 October 1991 which led to the break-up of Yugoslavia and countries international recognition by the United Nations in 1992.

Elections in Yugoslavia

first multi-party elections
During 1990, the socialists (former communists) lost power to ethnic separatist parties in the first multi-party elections held across the country, except in Serbia and Montenegro, where Milošević and his allies won.
Serbia and Montenegro remained together after the dissolution of Yugoslavia and kept its name until 2003, with the last remnant of Yugoslavia ending upon Montenegro's independence in 2006.

Anti-bureaucratic revolution

Yogurt Revolution1989 coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo and MontenegroAction North
The Anti-bureaucratic revolution was a series of protests in Serbia and Montenegro orchestrated by Milošević to put his supporters in SAP Vojvodina, SAP Kosovo, and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro (SR Montenegro) to power as he sought to oust his rivals.
The rising antagonism eventually resulted in the dissolution of the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1990, and subsequently in the breakup of Yugoslavia.

Greater Croatia

Greater Croatsreunite the Croatian people
The important elements that fostered the discord involved contemporary and historical factors, including the formation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the first breakup and subsequent inter-ethnic and political wars and genocide during World War II, ideas of Greater Serbia, Greater Croatia, Greater Albania, and conflicting views about Pan-Slavism, and the unilateral recognition by a newly reunited Germany of the breakaway republics.
The most recent expression of a Greater Croatia arose in the aftermath of the breakup of Yugoslavia.

1981 protests in Kosovo

protests seeking that Kosovo become a republic within Yugoslavia1981 protests1981 riots in Kosovo
In the 1980s, Albanians of Kosovo started to demand that their autonomous province be granted the status of a constituent republic, starting with the 1981 protests.
The demonstrations in Kosovo were the beginning of a deep crisis in Yugoslavia that later led to its dissolution.