Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets.
An illustration of breast cancer
A dimer of the ligand-binding region of ERβ (PDB rendering based on ).
The location and development of endometrial cancer.
Crystallographic structure of afimoxifene (carbon = white, oxygen = red, nitrogen = blue) complexed with ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) (cyan ribbon).
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
The domain structures of ERα and ERβ, including some of the known phosphorylation sites involved in ligand-independent regulation.
The location and development of endometrial cancer.
Early signs of possible breast cancer
A dimer of the ligand-binding region of ERα (PDB rendering based on ).
The autosomal dominant inheritance pattern seen in Lynch syndrome
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg
Immunohistochemistry of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma with wild-type pattern of p53 expression, with variable proportion of tumor cell nuclei staining with variable intensity.
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
Arimidex (anastrozole) 1 mg
Vaginal ultrasonography with an endometrial fluid accumulation (darker area) in a postmenopausal uterus, a finding that is highly suspicious for endometrial cancer
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Polypoidal endometrial carcinoma
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
Relative incidences of endometrial carcinomas by histopathology.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
Endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma—very high magnification—H&E stain
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
A keyhole hysterectomy, one possible surgery to treat endometrial cancer
Chest after right breast mastectomy
alt=A diagram of stage IA and IB endometrial cancer|Stage IA and IB endometrial cancer
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
alt=A diagram of stage II endometrial cancer|Stage II endometrial cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
alt=A diagram of stage III endometrial cancer|Stage III endometrial cancer
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
alt=A diagram of stage IV endometrial cancer|Stage IV endometrial cancer
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

Tamoxifen, sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.

- Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen is used for the treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive or ER+) breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women.

- Tamoxifen

The medications tamoxifen or raloxifene may be used in an effort to prevent breast cancer in those who are at high risk of developing it.

- Breast cancer

Tamoxifen increases the risk of postmenopausal bleeding, endometrial polyps, hyperplasia, and endometrial cancer; using tamoxifen with an intrauterine system releasing levonorgestrel might increase vaginal bleeding after 1 to 2 years, but reduces somewhat endometrial polyps and hyperplasia, but not necessarily endometrial cancer.

- Tamoxifen

The ERα is found in endometrium, breast cancer cells, ovarian stromal cells, and the hypothalamus. In males, ERα protein is found in the epithelium of the efferent ducts.

- Estrogen receptor

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (e.g., tamoxifen, clomifene, raloxifene)

- Estrogen receptor

Risk factors for endometrial cancer include obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, use of tamoxifen, never having had a child, late menopause, high levels of estrogen, and increasing age.

- Endometrial cancer

Estrogen and the ERs have also been implicated in breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and endometrial cancer.

- Estrogen receptor

Additionally, G-protein coupled estrogen receptors have been associated with various cancers of the female reproductive system including breast cancer.

- Breast cancer

The selective estrogen receptor modulators reduce the risk of breast cancer but increase the risk of thromboembolism and endometrial cancer.

- Breast cancer

This treatment is effective in endometrial stromal sarcomas because they typically have estrogen and/or progestin receptors.

- Endometrial cancer
Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets.

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A bottle of raloxifene.

Raloxifene

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Medication used to prevent and treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and those on glucocorticoids.

Medication used to prevent and treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and those on glucocorticoids.

A bottle of raloxifene.

It is also used to reduce the risk of breast cancer in those at high risk.

Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and therefore a mixed agonist–antagonist of the estrogen receptor (ER).

In the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial, 60 mg/day raloxifene was 78% as effective as 20 mg/day tamoxifen in preventing non-invasive breast cancer.

Raloxifene does not cause breast tenderness, endometrial hyperplasia, menstrual bleeding, or endometrial cancer.