An illustration of breast cancer
Radiation therapy of the pelvis, using a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator. Lasers and a mould under the legs are used to determine exact position.
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
Radiation therapy for a patient with a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, with radiation dose color-coded.
Early signs of possible breast cancer
Histopathology of radiation cystitis, including atypical stromal cells (“radiation fibroblasts”).
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
The beam's eye view of the radiotherapy portal on the hand's surface with the lead shield cut-out placed in the machine's gantry
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
A teletherapy radiation capsule composed of the following:
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator, used for delivering IMRT
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
A SAVI brachytherapy device
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
X-ray treatment of tuberculosis in 1910. Before the 1920s, the hazards of radiation were not understood, and it was used to treat a wide range of diseases.
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
Chest after right breast mastectomy
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

In those who have been diagnosed with cancer, a number of treatments may be used, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy.

- Breast cancer

For example, non-melanoma skin cancer, head and neck cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and prostate cancer.

- Radiation therapy
An illustration of breast cancer

4 related topics

Alpha

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver

Cancer

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver
Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
The GHS Hazard pictogram for carcinogenic substances
Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco in 2016.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Chest X-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung
Three measures of global cancer mortality from 1990 to 2017
Engraving with two views of a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in 1689
University of Florida Cancer Hospital
CancerTreeMammal
An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale area at the center) surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue
An invasive colorectal carcinoma (top center) in a colectomy specimen
A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen
A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen

The benefits of screening for breast cancer are controversial.

Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapy.

Illustration showing hematogenous metastasis

Metastasis

Pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor.

Pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor.

Illustration showing hematogenous metastasis
Cut surface of a liver showing multiple paler metastatic nodules originating from pancreatic cancer
Lymph node with almost complete replacement by metastatic melanoma. The brown pigment is focal deposition of melanin
Main sites of metastases for some common cancer types. Primary cancers are denoted by "...cancer" and their main metastasis sites are denoted by "...metastases".
Pulmonary metastases shown on Chest X-Ray
Cut surface of a humerus sawn lengthwise, showing a large cancerous metastasis (the whitish tumor between the head and the shaft of the bone)
Micrograph of thyroid cancer (papillary thyroid carcinoma) in a lymph node of the neck. H&E stain
CT image of multiple liver metastases
CT image of a lung metastasis
Metastasis proven by liver biopsy (tumor (adenocarcinoma)—lower two-thirds of image). H&E stain.
Metastatic cancer in the lungs
Metastases from the lungs to the brain
Metastases from the lungs to the pancreas

This means that if breast cancer metastasizes to the lungs, the secondary tumor is made up of abnormal breast cells, not of abnormal lung cells.

Once a cancer has metastasized it may still be treated with radiosurgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy, hormone therapy, surgery, or a combination of these interventions ("multimodal therapy").

Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets

Hormonal therapy (oncology)

Hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology , others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).

Hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology , others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).

Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets
Arimidex (anastrozole) 1 mg tablets
Letrozole
Tamoxifen
Megestrol acetate

Hormonal therapy is used for several types of cancers derived from hormonally responsive tissues, including the breast, prostate, endometrium, and adrenal cortex.

Octreotide may also be used for treatment of severe diarrhea caused by 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Arrow points to brachytherapy beads used to treat prostate cancer.

Brachytherapy

Arrow points to brachytherapy beads used to treat prostate cancer.
Body sites in which brachytherapy can be used to treat cancer.
Typical stages of a brachytherapy procedure.
Creation of a virtual patient to plan the delivery of brachytherapy.
Refinement of the treatment plan during a brachytherapy procedure.

Brachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy where a sealed radiation source is placed inside or next to the area requiring treatment.

Brachytherapy is commonly used as an effective treatment for cervical, prostate, breast, esophageal and skin cancer and can also be used to treat tumours in many other body sites.