Breast cancer

An illustration of breast cancer
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
Early signs of possible breast cancer
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
Chest after right breast mastectomy
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

Cancer that develops from breast tissue.

- Breast cancer
An illustration of breast cancer

103 related topics

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Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses.

Breast cancer classification

Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses.
Ducts and lobules, the locations of ductal and lobular carcinoma, respectively.
Tubule formation score in the Nottingham system
Mitosis appearances in breast cancer
Molecular classification of breast cancer from mRNA expression profiles
Ductal carcinoma with mild nuclear pleomorphism.
Invasive ductal carcinoma with moderate nuclear pleomorphism.
Invasive lobular carcinoma with moderate nuclear pleomorphism.
Invasive ductal carcinoma with marked nuclear pleomorphism.

Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose.

A woman examines her breast.

Breast self-examination

A woman examines her breast.
An pictorial example of breast self-examination in six steps. Steps 1-3 involve inspection of the breast with the arms hanging next to the body, behind the head and in the side. Step 4 is palpation of the breast. Step 5 is palpation of the nipple. Step 6 is palpation of the breast while lying down.
Methods for breast palpation

Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer.

Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal triphenylethylene antiestrogen and a widely used drug in the treatment of breast cancer.

Selective estrogen receptor modulator

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), also known as estrogen receptor agonist/antagonists (ERAAs), are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), also known as estrogen receptor agonist/antagonists (ERAAs), are a class of drugs that act on the estrogen receptor (ER).

Tamoxifen, a nonsteroidal triphenylethylene antiestrogen and a widely used drug in the treatment of breast cancer.
Figure 2: Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20-milligram tablets (UK)
Figure 3: The domain structures of ERα and ERβ, including some of the known phosphorylation sites involved in ligand-independent regulation.
Figure 4: Structural basis for the mechanism of estrogen receptor agonist and antagonist action. The structures shown here are of the ligand binding domain (LBD) of the estrogen receptor (green cartoon diagram) complexed with either the agonist diethylstilbestrol (top, ) or antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen (bottom, ). The ligands are depicted as space filling spheres (white = carbon, red = oxygen). When an agonist is bound to a nuclear receptor, the C-terminal alpha helix of the LBD (H12; light blue) is positioned such that a coactivator protein (red) can bind to the surface of the LBD. Shown here is just a small part of the coactivator protein, the so-called NR box containing the LXXLL amino acid sequence motif. Antagonists occupy the same ligand binding cavity of the nuclear receptor. However antagonist ligands in addition have a sidechain extension which sterically displaces H12 to occupy roughly the same position in space as coactivators bind. Hence coactivator binding to the LBD is blocked.
Figure 5: 4-hydroxytamoxifen (red) overlaid with 17β-estradiol (black)
Figure 6: Trans-form of clomifene with the triphenylethylene structure in red.
Figure 8: Chemical structure of toremifene
Figure 9: Raloxifene has a benzothiophene group (red) and is connected with a flexible carbonyl hinge to a phenyl 4-piperidinoethoxy side chain (green).
Figure 10: Chemical structure of nafoxidine with the dihydronapthalene group in red.
Figure 11: Chemical structure of lasofoxifene shows cis-oriented phenyls.
Figure 12: Bazedoxifene includes an indole system (red) which is connected to an amine through a benzyloxyethyl chain (green).
Figure 13: Chemical structure of ospemifene. Ethoxy side chain ends with a hydroxy group (red) instead of a dimethylamino group as with first-generation SERMs.
Figure 14: The ABCD steroid ring system in 17β-estradiol.
Figure 15: "A ring" (A) and "D ring" (D) marked in raloxifene.

Toxicological issues prevented long term use of clomifene and further drug development for other potential applications such as breast cancer treatment and prevention.

3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer

Cancer staging

Process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

Process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer
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Staging systems are specific for each type of cancer (e.g., breast cancer and lung cancer), but some cancers do not have a staging system.

Ovarian and breast cancer patients in a pedigree chart of a family

Hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndrome

Ovarian and breast cancer patients in a pedigree chart of a family
Absolute risk of cancers in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

Hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndromes (HBOC) are cancer syndromes that produce higher than normal levels of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and additional cancers in genetically related families (either one individual had both, or several individuals in the pedigree had one or the other disease).

Ducts of the mammary gland, the location of ductal carcinoma

Ductal carcinoma in situ

Pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast.

Pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast.

Ducts of the mammary gland, the location of ductal carcinoma
Histopathologic image from ductal cell carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of breast. Hematoxylin and eosin stain.
A drawing of ductal carcinoma in situ in the anatomical context of the whole breast
A drawing of a breast duct containing ductal carcinoma in situ.
Immunohistochemistry for calponin in ductal carcinoma in situ, highlighting myoepithelial cells around all tumor cells, thereby ruling out invasive ductal carcinoma.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses. "Ductal carcinoma in situ" is near top.
Histopathology of the cribriform type of breast ductal carcinoma in situ.

About 20–30% of those who do not receive treatment develop breast cancer.

Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets

Hormonal therapy (oncology)

Hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology , others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).

Hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology , others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).

Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets
Arimidex (anastrozole) 1 mg tablets
Letrozole
Tamoxifen
Megestrol acetate

Hormonal therapy is used for several types of cancers derived from hormonally responsive tissues, including the breast, prostate, endometrium, and adrenal cortex.

A woman having a mammogram

Breast cancer screening

A woman having a mammogram
A pictorial example of breast self-examination in six steps. Steps 1-3 involve visual inspection of the breasts with the arms in different positions. Step 4 is palpation of the breast. Step 5 is palpation of the nipple. Step 6 is palpation of the breast while lying down.
Normal (left) versus cancerous (right) mammography image.
Two mammograms of normal dense breasts.

Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.

Medroxyprogesterone acetate

Hormonal medication of the progestin type.

Hormonal medication of the progestin type.

DMPA has also been used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, as a palliative appetite stimulant for cancer patients, and at high doses (800 mg per day) to treat certain hormone-dependent cancers including endometrial cancer, renal cancer, and breast cancer.

A breast lump associated with an inverted nipple and skin dimpling. Underlying cause was breast cancer.

Breast mass

Localized swelling that feel different from the surrounding tissue.

Localized swelling that feel different from the surrounding tissue.

A breast lump associated with an inverted nipple and skin dimpling. Underlying cause was breast cancer.
A fine needle biopsy

Causes include fibrocystic change, fibroadenomas, breast infection, galactoceles, and breast cancer.