Breast cancer

An illustration of breast cancer
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
Early signs of possible breast cancer
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
Chest after right breast mastectomy
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

Cancer that develops from breast tissue.

- Breast cancer
An illustration of breast cancer

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Breast cancer awareness ribbon in Louisville, Kentucky

Breast cancer awareness

Breast cancer awareness ribbon in Louisville, Kentucky
A pink ribbon, an international symbol of breast cancer awareness.
Large events, such as walkathons, promote breast cancer awareness.
A breast cancer awareness program is presented in India to Muslim women in 2013.
The basket contains an assortment of pink ribbon-branded promotional merchandise, including awareness bracelets, ink pens, candy, and emery boards.
Pink Ribbon chocolates
This trolley advertisement promotes cosmetics company Avon Products, Inc. and breast cancer awareness. Because of the pink ribbon brand's strength, the advertisement is easily recognized as a promotion for breast cancer awareness, even among people who cannot read the Japanese text.
A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. She keeps ice packs on her hands and feet to reduce temporary damage to her fingernails and toenails.
William Stewart Halsted, responsible for the radical mastectomy that dramatically reduced death rates due to breast cancer, but later proved to be controversial in its own right.

Breast cancer awareness is an effort to raise awareness and reduce the stigma of breast cancer through education on symptoms and treatment.

Person following the removal of their right breast.

Mastectomy

Medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.

Medical term for the surgical removal of one or both breasts, partially or completely.

Person following the removal of their right breast.
Transgender person with healed double lateral incision mastectomy
Examples of custom nipple prostheses
Breast prostheses used by some women after mastectomy
Mastectomy specimen containing a very large cancer of the breast (in this case, an invasive ductal carcinoma)
Typical macroscopic (gross examination) appearance of the cut surface of a mastectomy specimen containing cancer, in this case, an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, pale area at the center

A mastectomy is usually carried out to treat breast cancer.

Lumpectomy and axillary dissection performed through one incision

Lumpectomy

Lumpectomy and axillary dissection performed through one incision

Lumpectomy (sometimes known as a tylectomy, partial mastectomy, breast segmental resection or breast wide local excision) is a surgical removal of a discrete portion or "lump" of breast tissue, usually in the treatment of a malignant tumor or breast cancer.

Histopathologic image of breast fibroadenoma. Core needle biopsy. H&E stain.

Fibroadenoma

Admixture of stromal and epithelial tissue.

Admixture of stromal and epithelial tissue.

Histopathologic image of breast fibroadenoma. Core needle biopsy. H&E stain.
Macroscopic view of fibroadenoma of the breast
Closeup of a fibroadenoma of the breast
Fibroadenoma Histology (H&E). The image demonstrates intracanalicular morphology (top right) and pericanalicular morphology (bottom left)
Fibroadenoma, Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (Giemsa or DiffQuick stain). The image shows abundant bare bipolar stromal nuclei surrounding sheets of metachromatic epithelial cells.
Fibroadenoma, Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (Papanicolou stain). The image shows a sheet of epithelial cells in the typical antler pattern.
Histopathologic image of breast fibroadenoma showing proliferation of intralobular stroma compressing and distorting the epithelium. H&E stain.
Fibroadenoma in ultrasound

Since both fibroadenomas, and breast lumps as a sign of breast cancer can appear similar, it is recommended to perform ultrasound analyses and possibly tissue sampling with subsequent histopathologic analysis in order to make a proper diagnosis.

Malignant tumor (right) spreads uncontrollably and invades the surrounding tissues; benign tumor (left) remains self-contained from neighbouring tissue

Malignancy

Tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

Tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

Malignant tumor (right) spreads uncontrollably and invades the surrounding tissues; benign tumor (left) remains self-contained from neighbouring tissue

The 15-49-year-old age bracket most common form of malignancy is breast cancer with liver and lung cancer following.

Sonographer doing echocardiography on a child

Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound includes diagnostic techniques (mainly imaging techniques) using ultrasound, as well as therapeutic applications of ultrasound.

Medical ultrasound includes diagnostic techniques (mainly imaging techniques) using ultrasound, as well as therapeutic applications of ultrasound.

Sonographer doing echocardiography on a child
Ultrasound of carotid artery
An ultrasound result on fetal biometry printed on a piece of paper.
B-flow image of venous reflux.
Intravascular ultrasound image of a coronary artery (left), with color-coding on the right, delineating the lumen (yellow), external elastic membrane (blue) and the atherosclerotic plaque burden (green)
Ultrasound of human heart showing the four chambers and mitral and tricuspid valves.
Orthogonal planes of a 3 dimensional sonographic volume with transverse and coronal measurements for estimating fetal cranial volume.
Neck ultrasound.
Urinary bladder (black butterfly-like shape) and hyperplastic prostate (BPH) visualized by medical sonographic technique
Medical ultrasound scanner
Linear array transducer
Duplex scan of the common carotid artery
Parametric imaging of vascular signatures (diagram)
Ultrasound-guided hip joint injection.
Panoramic ultrasonography of a proximal biceps tendon rupture. Top image shows the contralateral normal side, and lower image shows a retracted muscle, with a hematoma filling out the proximal space.
Double aorta artifact in sonography due to difference in velocity of sound waves in muscle and fat.
A normal appendix without and with compression. Absence of compressibility indicates appendicitis.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Reddan|first1=Tristan|last2=Corness|first2=Jonathan|last3=Mengersen|first3=Kerrie|author3-link= Kerrie Mengersen |last4=Harden|first4=Fiona|title=Ultrasound of paediatric appendicitis and its secondary sonographic signs: providing a more meaningful finding|journal=Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences|date=March 2016|volume=63|issue=1|pages=59–66|doi=10.1002/jmrs.154|pmid=27087976|pmc=4775827}}</ref>
Compression is used in this ultrasonograph to get closer to the abdominal aorta, making the superior mesenteric vein and the inferior vena cava look rather flat.

In a cancer screening context, this method might be potentially applicable to other organs such as breast or prostate.

A general representation of the method used to produce monoclonal antibodies.

Trastuzumab

A general representation of the method used to produce monoclonal antibodies.

Trastuzumab, sold under the brand name Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer and stomach cancer.

Doxorubicin

Chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

Chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

Diagram of two doxorubicin molecules intercalating DNA, from.

This includes breast cancer, bladder cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma, and acute lymphocytic leukemia.

Left: A hormone feedback loop in a female adult. (1) Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, (2) Luteinizing Hormone, (3) Progesterone, (4) Estradiol. Right: Auxin transport from leaves to roots in Arabidopsis thaliana

Levonorgestrel

Hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.

Hormonal medication which is used in a number of birth control methods.

Left: A hormone feedback loop in a female adult. (1) Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, (2) Luteinizing Hormone, (3) Progesterone, (4) Estradiol. Right: Auxin transport from leaves to roots in Arabidopsis thaliana

Levonorgestrel as a contraceptive intrauterine device is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than with non-use.

An illustration of breast cancer

Anastrozole

An illustration of breast cancer

Anastrozole, sold under the brand name Arimidex among others, is a medication used in addition to other treatments for breast cancer.