A report on Breast cancer screening

A woman having a mammogram
A pictorial example of breast self-examination in six steps. Steps 1-3 involve visual inspection of the breasts with the arms in different positions. Step 4 is palpation of the breast. Step 5 is palpation of the nipple. Step 6 is palpation of the breast while lying down.
Normal (left) versus cancerous (right) mammography image.
Two mammograms of normal dense breasts.

Medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.

- Breast cancer screening
A woman having a mammogram

6 related topics with Alpha

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An illustration of breast cancer

Breast cancer

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Cancer that develops from breast tissue.

Cancer that develops from breast tissue.

An illustration of breast cancer
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
Early signs of possible breast cancer
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
Chest after right breast mastectomy
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial.

A woman examines her breast.

Breast self-examination

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A woman examines her breast.
An pictorial example of breast self-examination in six steps. Steps 1-3 involve inspection of the breast with the arms hanging next to the body, behind the head and in the side. Step 4 is palpation of the breast. Step 5 is palpation of the nipple. Step 6 is palpation of the breast while lying down.
Methods for breast palpation

Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer.

Absolute risk of cancers in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

BRCA mutation

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Mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are tumour suppressor genes.

Mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are tumour suppressor genes.

Absolute risk of cancers in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.
BRCA mutations are inherited in a genetically dominant fashion, from either parent.
The BRCA genes are tumour suppressor genes pictured here on their respective chromosomes. BRCA 1 has the cytogenetic location 17q21 or the q arm of Chromosome 17 at position 21. BRCA 2 has the cytogenetic location 13q12.3 or the q arm of Chromosome 13 at position 12.3. Both genes produce proteins that help repair damaged DNA, keeping the genetic material of the cell stable. A damaged BRCA gene in either location can lead to increased risk of cancer, particularly breast or ovarian in women.

Compared to that, a woman with a high-risk BRCA1 mutation, if she had breast cancer screening but no prophylactic medical or surgical intervention, would have only 59% chance to reach age 70, twenty-five percentage points lower than normal.

Mammography

Mammography

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Process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.

Process of using low-energy X-rays (usually around 30 kVp) to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening.

Mammography
Illustration of a mammogram
A mobile mammography unit in New Zealand
Normal (left) versus cancerous (right) mammography image

In Northern Ireland women with mental health problems were shown to be less likely to attend screening for breast cancer, than women without.

Mammography (left) and DMSA scintimammography (right) images of 4.5cm breast carcinoma

Scintimammography

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Type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or for those who have dense breast tissue, post-operative scar tissue or breast implants.

Type of breast imaging test that is used to detect cancer cells in the breasts of some women who have had abnormal mammograms, or for those who have dense breast tissue, post-operative scar tissue or breast implants.

Mammography (left) and DMSA scintimammography (right) images of 4.5cm breast carcinoma

Scintimammography is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram.

South Asians in the United Kingdom

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South Asians in the United Kingdom have been present in the country since the 17th century, with significant migration occurring in the mid-20th century.

South Asians in the United Kingdom have been present in the country since the 17th century, with significant migration occurring in the mid-20th century.

In the UK, women of South Asian heritage are the least likely to attend breast cancer screening.