Breast cancer screening

breast densitybreastscreeningscreening mammogrambreast screening programmesbreast tissuecancer screeningclinical breast examinationmammographymammography screening
Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.wikipedia
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Breast self-examination

breast exambreast examinationbreast self-exam
A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities.
Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer.

Breast cancer

breastbreast carcinomabreast cancers
Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.
The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial.

BRCA mutation

BRCABRCA'' mutationBRCA1/2
Earlier, more aggressive, and more frequent screening is recommended for women at particularly high risk of developing breast cancer, such as those with a confirmed BRCA mutation, those who have previously had breast cancer, and those with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer.
Compared to that, a woman with a high-risk BRCA1 mutation, if she had breast cancer screening but no prophylactic medical or surgical intervention, would have only 59% chance to reach age 70, twenty-five percentage points lower than normal.

Scintimammography

Miraluma testSestamibi scintimammography
An earlier alternative technique suited to dense breast tissue, scintimammography is now not recommended by the American Cancer Society, which states, "This test cannot show whether an abnormal area is cancer as accurately as a mammogram, and it’s not used as a screening test. Some radiologists believe this test may be helpful in looking at suspicious areas found by mammogram. But the exact role of scintimammography is still unclear."
Scintimammography is not used for screening or in place of a mammogram.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
It is a blood test that can detect cancer at early stages as well as distinguish benign from malignant tumors.

Asymptomatic

subclinicalsub-clinicalno symptoms
Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.

Breast mass

breast lumpbreast tumorlump
A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities.

Screening (medicine)

screeningscreening testmedical screening
Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis.

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRIMRI scanmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Similar imaging studies can be performed with magnetic resonance imaging but evidence is lacking.

Biopsy

biopsiestissue biopsybiopsied
Abnormal findings on screening are further investigated by surgically removing a piece of the suspicious lumps (biopsy) to examine them under the microscope.

Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
Ultrasound may be used to guide the biopsy needle during the procedure.

Radiography

radiographradiographicradiographs
Mammography is a type of radiography used on the breasts.

Frailty syndrome

frailtymedically frailFrail elderly
In general, this means women who have risk factors such as having a personal or family history of breast cancer or being older women, but not being frail elderly women, who are unlikely to benefit from treatment.

Ionizing radiation

ionising radiationradiationnuclear radiation
This exposes the woman's breasts to a small amount of ionizing radiation, which has a very small, but non-zero, chance of causing cancer.

Radiology

radiologistradiologistsradiological
The X-ray image, called a radiograph, is sent to a physician who specializes in interpreting these images, called a radiologist.

Photographic film

filmfilm camerafilms
The image may be on plain photographic film or digital mammography on a computer screen; despite the much higher cost of the digital systems, the two methods are generally considered equally effective.

Computer-aided diagnosis

CADComputer-assisted diagnosisCAD (computer aided diagnostics)
The equipment may use a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system.

False positives and false negatives

false positivefalse negativefalse positives
Most of these will prove to be false positives, resulting in sometimes debilitating anxiety over nothing.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
Most of these will prove to be false positives, resulting in sometimes debilitating anxiety over nothing.

Relative risk reduction

relative amountrelative decreased risk
A 2013 Cochrane review estimated that mammography in women between 50 and 75 years old results in a relative decreased risk of death from breast cancer of 15% and an absolute risk reduction of 0.05%.

Risk difference

absolute risk reductionabsolute amountabsolute risk increase
A 2013 Cochrane review estimated that mammography in women between 50 and 75 years old results in a relative decreased risk of death from breast cancer of 15% and an absolute risk reduction of 0.05%.

Estrogen

oestrogenestrogensestrogenic
Radiographically, a dense breast has a preponderance of glandular tissue, and younger age or estrogen hormone replacement therapy contribute to mammographic breast density.

Hormone replacement therapy

menopausal hormone therapyhormone therapyestrogen replacement therapy
Radiographically, a dense breast has a preponderance of glandular tissue, and younger age or estrogen hormone replacement therapy contribute to mammographic breast density.