Breast milk

human milkhuman breast milkbreastmilkmilkmother's milkbreast-milkbreastfeedingexpressed breast milkmedicinal breast milkMother's Milk Bank
Breast milk or mother milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.wikipedia
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Breastfeeding

breast feedingbreastfeedbreast-feeding
Milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, in combination with other foods from six months of age when solid foods should be introduced. The baby nursing from its own mother is the most common way of obtaining breast milk, but the milk can be pumped and then fed by baby bottle, cup and/or spoon, supplementation drip system, or nasogastric tube. Women breastfeeding should consult with their physician regarding substances that can be unwittingly passed to the infant via breast milk, such as alcohol, viruses (HIV or HTLV-1) or medications. Though it now is almost universally prescribed, in some countries in the 1950s the practice of breastfeeding went through a period where it was out of vogue and the use of infant formula was considered superior to breast milk.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

Baby bottle

bottlebottle feedingbaby bottles
The baby nursing from its own mother is the most common way of obtaining breast milk, but the milk can be pumped and then fed by baby bottle, cup and/or spoon, supplementation drip system, or nasogastric tube.
In particular it is used to feed infant formula, expressed breast milk or pediatric electrolyte solution.

Milk

cow's milkcow milkwhole milk
Breast milk or mother milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
Human milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially; however, human milk banks collect donated human breastmilk and redistribute it to infants who may benefit from human milk for various reasons (premature neonates, babies with allergies, metabolic diseases, etc.) but who cannot breastfeed.

Breast

breastsbosombreast tissue
Breast milk or mother milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.
The breast is an apocrine gland that produces the milk used to feed an infant.

Low milk supply

agalactiaagalactorrhealow supply
There are many reasons a mother may not produce enough breast milk.
In breastfeeding women, low milk supply, also known as lactation insufficiency, insufficient milk syndrome, agalactia, agalactorrhea, hypogalactia or hypogalactorrhea, is the production of breast milk in daily volumes that do not fully meet the nutritional needs of her infant.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
This helps to protect the newborn until its own immune system is functioning properly.
Breast milk or colostrum also contains antibodies that are transferred to the gut of the infant and protect against bacterial infections until the newborn can synthesize its own antibodies.

Lactoferrin

lactotransferrinLTFRecombinant human lactoferrin
Breast milk contains less iron than formula, because it is more bioavailable as lactoferrin, which carries more safety for mothers and children than ferrous sulphate. The principal proteins are alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin (apo-lactoferrin), IgA, lysozyme, and serum albumin.
The saturated iron concentration in lactoferrin in human milk is estimated as 10 to 30% (100% corresponds to all lactoferrin molecules containing 2 iron atoms).

Breast pump

pumppumpingpump breast milk
The baby nursing from its own mother is the most common way of obtaining breast milk, but the milk can be pumped and then fed by baby bottle, cup and/or spoon, supplementation drip system, or nasogastric tube.
In a 2012 policy statement, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended feeding preterm infants human milk, finding "significant short- and long-term beneficial effects," including lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).

Lysozyme

LYZmuramidaselysozymes
The principal proteins are alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin (apo-lactoferrin), IgA, lysozyme, and serum albumin.
Lysozyme is abundant in secretions including tears, saliva, human milk, and mucus.

Human milk microbiome

various bacteria
Breast milk isn't sterile, but contains as many as 600 different species of various bacteria, including beneficial Bifidobacterium breve, B. adolescentis, B. longum, B. bifidum, and B. dentium.
The human milk microbiota, also known as human milk probiotics, refers to the microbiota (community of microorganisms) residing in the human mammary glands and breast milk.

Human milk oligosaccharide

human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs)
Breast milk contains a unique type of sugars, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are not present in infant formula.
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO, also known as human milk glycans) are sugar molecules, that are part of the oligosaccharides group and which can be found in high concentrations exclusively in human breast milk.

HIV

human immunodeficiency virusHIV-positiveHIV positive
Women breastfeeding should consult with their physician regarding substances that can be unwittingly passed to the infant via breast milk, such as alcohol, viruses (HIV or HTLV-1) or medications.
Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk.

Trans fat

trans fatstrans-fattrans fatty acids
The fat fraction contains specific triglycerides of palmitic and oleic acid (O-P-O triglycerides), and also lipids with trans bonds (see: trans fat).
It has been established that trans fats in human breast milk fluctuate with maternal consumption of trans fat, and that the amount of trans fats in the bloodstream of breastfed infants fluctuates with the amounts found in their milk.

Experimental cancer treatment

cancer therapiescancer treatmentexperimental
In an acidic environment such as the stomach, alpha-lactalbumin unfolds into a different form and binds oleic acid to form a complex called [[Experimental cancer treatment#HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells)|HAMLET]] that kills tumor cells.
HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a molecular complex derived from human breast milk that kills tumor cells by a process resembling programmed cell death (apoptosis).

2-Arachidonoylglycerol

2-AG2-arachidonoyl glycerol2-arachidonylglycerol
Mother's milk has been shown to supply endocannabinoids (the natural neurotransmitters that cannabis simulates) 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, N-arachidonoyl glycine, eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, N-palmitoleoyl-ethanolamine, dihomo-γ-linolenoylethanolamine, N-stearoylethanolamine, prostaglandin F2alpha ethanolamides and prostaglandin F2 ethanolamides, Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs).
It has been found in maternal bovine and human milk.

Fatty acid

fatty acidsfree fatty acidsfree fatty acid
Whole cow's milk contains too little iron, retinol, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D, unsaturated fats or essential fatty acids for human babies.
They are also found in dairy products from milk of ruminants, and may be also found in breast milk of women who obtained them from their diet.

Infant formula

baby formulaformulaformula feeding
Though it now is almost universally prescribed, in some countries in the 1950s the practice of breastfeeding went through a period where it was out of vogue and the use of infant formula was considered superior to breast milk.

Vitamin K

KMenaquinoneVitamin K 1
Human milk contains 1–4 μg/L of vitamin K 1, while formula-derived milk can contain up to 100 μg/L in supplemented formulas.

Saturated fat

saturated fatty acidsaturatedsaturated fats

Lipase

lipaseslipase LIPFE1104
Lipase may cause thawed milk to taste soapy or rancid due to milk fat breakdown.

Human milk banking in North America

mothers' milk bankdonated breast milkdonor milk
A human milk bank is "a service which collects, screens, processes, and dispenses by prescription human milk donated by nursing mothers who are not biologically related to the recipient infant".

Attachment parenting

attachment parent
Tammy Frissell-Deppe, a family counsellor specialized in attachment parenting, published a book, titled A Breastfeeding Mother's Secret Recipes, providing a lengthy compilation of detailed food and beverage recipes containing human breast milk.
He claims that infants up to six months should be exclusively fed with breast milk, since he believes that, at that age, children are allergic to all other foods.

Polychlorinated biphenyl

PCBsPCBpolychlorinated biphenyls
Studies are looking at the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent organic pollutants in the body; the breast milk of Inuit mothers is extraordinarily high in toxic compounds.
Human infants are exposed to PCBs through breast milk or by intrauterine exposure through transplacental transfer of PCBs and are at the top of the food chain.

Choline

choline salicylateanticholinergicCholine bitartrate
Human breast milk is rich in choline.

Baby Gaga

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Baby Gaga is an ice cream made from human breast milk.